Thursday, May 5, 2011

Key to the semester exam


1) By three years after release, what percentage of persons released from jail or prison have been incarcerated again?  (What is the 3-year rate of recidivism in the United States?)
1. There are no good studies of recidivism, because few records are kept about criminal and prison histories of persons sentenced to jail. The few studies that exist vary wildly in their reporting of 3-year recidivism, with some studies suggesting rates as low as 12% (studies of females released from jail in Texas) or as high as 90% (a study of violent offenders released from prison in California). It’s anyone’s guess how many prisoners are back in jail 3-years after release.  [no, studies tend to converge on recidivism around 60% to 70%, with a few studies showing lower rates, down to a little under half, but no studies showing rates much higher or lower than this range.]
2. The vast majority of persons released from jail or prison are entirely rehabilitated, and very few are ever arrested again. Studies in Oregon, New York, and Kansas conducted in the past decade have shown 3-year recidivism rates of 12%, 16%, and 23% for all persons released from jail or prison. [ridiculously low estimate]
3. Several studies of first-time offenders who were released after incarceration indicate that within 3-years only about a third are rearrested. For multiple offenders the recidivism rates are slightly higher, with perhaps 40% to 45% back in jail or prison within 3 years of release. [too low]
4. In a 34-state study, just under half of released prisoners were rearrested within three years (various studies show 3-year recidivism rates of 38%, 41%, 44%, and 50%). [too low]
5. A reasonable guess for recidivism is that it averages between 60% to 70% for three-year re-arrest. A 15-state study in the 1990s showed about two-thirds of released prisoners were rearrested within three years, but another report claims the national average for 3-year recidivism is about 53% (various studies show 3-year recidivism rates of 47%, 53%, 67%, and 70%). Recidivism can be much lower (for older female offenders who served longer sentences) or much higher (for younger male burglars and car thieves who had shorter initial sentences). [correct]
6. A national survey of corrections institutions and courts indicated that the 3-year recidivism rates for released male prisoners approaches 90%, and similar long-term studies of re-arrest records suggest recidivism rates of 77%, 84%, and 91%.   [Too high. The situation isn’t this bad.]
2) Research on the best existing rehabilitative services for prisoners and recently-released former prisoners suggests that using current best practices we might be able to achieve a lower level of recidivism.  What is a realistic level of recidivism we could probably achieve in our society if we used optimal existing preventive and rehabilitative services? [this is just asking the first question again]
1) A 2005 report by Etienne Bourgmont and Charles DuTisne (“Reducing Recidivism: The role of transition and post-release services”) indicated that typical recidivism rates are close to 43%, but in the best transition programs those receiving post-release services had 3-year re-arrest recidivism under 25%.  [you know this is hogwash if you know normal recidivism rates are around 60% or higher]
2) A May 2008 report by Amy Solomon and colleagues (“Life After Lock-Up: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community”) indicated that typical recidivism rates are close to 73%, but in the best transition programs those receiving post-release services had 3-year re-arrest recidivism under 5%.  [73% is the high end of what studies find, and no one with any understanding of criminology thinks we can get recidivism below 5%]
3) A study by the Massachusetts Department of Correction and the Urban Institute (The Massachusetts Recidivism Study) found that 39% of the 1,786 men released from prison in 2002 were in prison again within three years. This represents about the best we can reasonably hope to achieve with given technologies and current political priorities given that sort of population, although perhaps much lower recidivism could be expected with other populations (a women’s prison in Illinois claims a recidivism rate near 12.5%). [correct]
4) Based on various studies of recidivism, services for prisoners, and reports from other societies, it seems reasonable to imagine that good rehabilitation services and post-release transitional services could drop recidivism down to under 11%, perhaps even 7% or lower. [These numbers are ridiculously optimistic]
5) Based on what we know about criminal behavior, it seems unlikely that recidivism can drop far below present levels of 80%-90%. The most optimistic predictions are that with state-of-the art services and training the 3-year re-arrest rates might be pushed down to 60% or 70%.   [rates are already at 60% to 70%]
6) Good programs for prisoners and recently released former prisoners can usually deliver recidivism rates of around 50%, while normal recidivism rates often exceed 80%.  [typical recidivism rates sometimes exceed 70%, but they almost never exceed 80%, so this is clearly wrong.  However, it’s worth partial credit, since it is true that good programs can hope to achieve recidivism rates of 40% to 50%, a drop from normal rates of 60%-70%]
2)In the United States, what is the median earning of full-time year-around workers who are males?
1. Probably close to $22,500 (in 2009) or $25,200 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
2. Probably close to $29,500 (in 2009) or $27,200 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
3. Probably close to $37,500 (in 2009) or $32,200 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
4. Probably close to $39,500 (in 2009) or $40,200 (in 2008) or a bit higher.
5. Probably close to $45,500 (in 2009) or $45,200 (in 2008), or a bit higher.  [correct]
6. Probably close to $52,500 (in 2009) or $52,200 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
4)In the United States, what is the median earning of full-time year-around workers who are females?
1. Probably close to $21,550 (in 2009) or $20,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
2. Probably close to $22,550 (in 2009) or $24,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
3. Probably close to $30,550 (in 2009) or $27,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
4. Probably close to $35,550 (in 2009) or $35,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher. [correct]
5. Probably close to $42,550 (in 2009) or $39,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
6. Probably close to $46,550 (in 2009) or $45,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
5)In the United States, what is the median earning of full-time year-around workers who are females with African heritage?
1. Probably close to $18,400,(in 2009) or $20,500 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
2. Probably close to $21,900 (in 2009) or $22,500 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
3. Probably close to $24,900 (in 2009) or $26,500 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
4. Probably close to $27,900 (in 2009) or $28,500 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
5. Probably close to $30,900 (in 2009) or $30,500 (in 2008), or a bit higher. [correct]
6. Probably close to $36,900 (in 2009) or $35,500 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
6)In the United States, what is the median earning of full-time year-around workers who are males with African heritage?
1. Probably close to $19,340,(in 2009) or $20,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
2. Probably close to $23,340 (in 2009) or $21,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
3. Probably close to $25,340,(in 2009) or $22,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
4. Probably close to $28,340 (in 2009) or $24,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
5. Probably close to $31,340 (in 2009) or $30,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher.
6. Probably close to $36,340 (in 2009) or $36,100 (in 2008), or a bit higher. [correct]
7)What is the poverty rate for older people in America (persons 65 and older)?
Probably close to 2.7% (down from 3.3% in 2008), which is lower than the national average of 11% (down from 12.2% in 2008), or the poverty rate for children, which was 14% (down from 14.8% in 2008).
 In 2009, it was 6.9% (up from 5.7% in 2008), which is lower than the national average of 11.2% (up from 10.7% in 2008), or the poverty rate for children, which was 19% (up from 17.5% in 2008).
 In 2009, it was 15.7% (down from close to 19.7% in 2008), which is higher than the national average of 11.0% (up from 10.1% in 2008), or the poverty rate for children, which was 14.0% (up from 13% in 2008
 In 2009, it was 7.7% (down from close to 8.2% in 2008), which is lower than the national average of 12.3% (up from 12.1% in 2008), or the poverty rate for children, which was 15.7% (up from 14% in 2008).   
 In 2009, it was 8.9% (down from close to 9.7% in 2008), which is lower than the national average of 14.3% (up from 13.2% in 2008), or the poverty rate for children, which was 20.7% (up from 19% in 2008).  [correct]
 In 2009, it was close to 12.7% (up from 10.2% in 2008), which is higher than the national average of 11.2% (up from 11% in 2008), or the poverty rate for children, which was 12.0% (down from 12.5% in 2008).
8)According to a study of major sources of income as reported by older persons in 2007, about what percentage of all income in households headed by someone 65 or older comes from Social Security?
1. About 9%
2. About 13%
3. About 17%w
4. About 24%
5. About 29%
6. About 36% [correct]
9)What is the leading cause of death in America, and what percentage of all death does it account for?
1. Cancer.  The cause of death for 22.8% of all deaths.
2. Cancer.  The cause of death for 9.2% of all deaths.
3. Cerebrovascular Diseases.  The cause of death for 23.8% of all deaths
4. Cerebrovascular Diseases.  The cause of death for 9.6% of all deaths
5. Diseases of the heart. The cause of death for 26.6% of all deaths. [correct]
6. Diseases of the heart. The cause of death for 8.8% of all deaths.
10) What is the average cost of a year of long-term nursing home care?
1. About $24,000.
2. About $34,000.
3. About $44,000.
4. About $54,000.
5. About $64,000.
6. About $74,000.  [correct.  See chapter 15, page 568 in the 8th edition]
11) How many people are uninsured in America?
12)
1. The Census Bureau reported that in 2009, 5.3% of Americans (11.7 million, or about 1-in-25 Americans under 65) were uninsured. However, in April of 2009 the Issues in Health Insurance Market Reform  report by The Heritage Foundation (conducted by the CATO Institute) found that actually only 8.3 million Americans (about half of those under 65) were uninsured for some time during 2007 and 2008. Popple and Leighninger reported in their textbook that in 2006 about 6% of persons under 65 were uninsured.
2. The Census Bureau reported that in 2009, 8.3% of Americans (18.7 million, or about 1-in-15 Americans under 65) were uninsured. However, in April of 2009 the Issues in Health Insurance Market Reform  report by The Heritage Foundation (conducted by the CATO Institute) found that actually only 6.3 million Americans (about one twentieth of those under 65) were uninsured for some time during 2007 and 2008. Popple and Leighninger reported in their textbook that in 2006 about 9% of persons under 65 were uninsured.
3. The Census Bureau reported that in 2009, 11.3% of Americans (25.7 million, or about 1-in-9 Americans under 65) were uninsured. However, in April of 2009 the Issues in Health Insurance Market Reform  report by The Heritage Foundation (conducted by the CATO Institute) found that actually only 6.3 million Americans (about one twentieth of those under 65) were uninsured for some time during 2007 and 2008. Popple and Leighninger reported in their textbook that in 2006 fewer than 13% of persons under 65 were uninsured.
4. The Census Bureau reported that in 2009, 16.7% of Americans (50.7 million, or about 1-in-5 Americans under 65) were uninsured. However, in March of 2009 the Americans At Risk report by Families USA (conducted by the Lewin Group) found that 86.3 million Americans (about a third of those under 65) were uninsured for some time during 2007 and 2008. Popple and Leighninger reported in their textbook that in 2007 about 16% of persons under 65 were uninsured.  [correct]
5. The Census Bureau reported that in 2009, 25.3% of Americans (65.7 million, or about 1-in-4 Americans under 65) were uninsured. However, in March of 2009 the Americans At Risk report by Families USA (conducted by the Lewin Group) found that 136.3 million Americans (about half of those under 65) were uninsured for some time during 2007 and 2008. Popple and Leighninger reported in their textbook that in 2006 over 48% of persons under 65 were uninsured.
6. The Census Bureau reported that in 2009, 45.3% of Americans (115.7 million, or about 3-in-5 Americans under 65) were uninsured. However, in March of 2009 the Americans At Risk report by Families USA (conducted by the Lewin Group) found that 186.3 million Americans (about two thirds of those under 65) were uninsured for some time during 2007 and 2008. Popple and Leighninger reported in their textbook that in 2006 over 68% of persons under 65 were uninsured. [These are ridiculous numbers. If it were this bad, we would be seeing total social collapse]
12) About what percentage of children in America have no health insurance, according to the U.S. Census Bureau’s Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States; 2009 report (slightly higher than reported by the 2008 figures given in some textbooks)?
1. 10.0 percent and 7.5 million 
2. 14.0 percent and 10.3 million
3. 17.0 percent and 12.5 million
4. 21.0 percent and 15.5 million
5. 31.0 percent and 22.8 million
6. 51.0 percent and 37.6 million
13) In the United States, about how many non-elderly (64 and younger) citizens in poverty do not qualify for Medicaid health care coverage and are therefore uninsured?
1)It’s sometimes claimed that all poor persons qualify for Medicaid; however, until the 2010 health care reform law comes into effect, some types of poor persons are not covered by Medicaid because they are adults with no work history, or they are immigrants without citizenship, and they therefore don’t qualify. Thus, about 2.5 million, or somewhere between 5% and 10% of all non-elderly persons in poverty are uninsured and do not qualify for Medicaid. About 2% of poor children are uninsured, and 8.5% of poor women are uninsured, and 10.3% of poor men are uninsured.
2) Only about 40% of persons living in poverty qualify for Medicaid, but many poor people who don’t qualify for Medicaid have health insurance through Medicare, or Veterans Benefits, or private insurance, so only about 7.5 million, or somewhere between 13% and 17% of all non-elderly persons in poverty are uninsured and do not qualify for Medicaid. About 6% of poor children are uninsured, and 10% of poor women are uninsured, and 19% of poor men are uninsured.
3) Until the 2010 health care reform law comes into effect, only about 40% of persons living in poverty qualify for Medicaid, but many poor people who don’t qualify for Medicaid have health insurance through Medicare, or Veterans Benefits, or private insurance, so only about 10.5 million (somewhere between 20% and 25% of all non-elderly persons in poverty) are uninsured and do not qualify for Medicaid. About 16% of poor children are uninsured, and 20% of poor women are uninsured, and 30% of poor men are uninsured. [correct]
4) Until the 2010 health care reform law comes into effect, only about 40% of persons living in poverty qualify for Medicaid, but many poor people who don’t qualify for Medicaid have health insurance through Medicare, or Veterans Benefits, or private insurance, so only about 13.5 million (somewhere between 33% and 40% of all non-elderly persons in poverty) are uninsured and do not qualify for Medicaid. About 26% of poor children are uninsured, and 40% of poor women are uninsured, and 50% of poor men are uninsured.
5) Before the 2010 health care reform makes all persons in poverty eligible for Medicaid (as it will in 2014 unless it this provision is removed) about 60% of persons living in poverty qualify for Medicaid, but many persons who qualify do not enroll and receive it, so about 25.5 million, or somewhere between 50% and 60% of all non-elderly persons in poverty are uninsured. About 45% of poor children are uninsured, and 55% of poor women are uninsured, and 66% of poor men are uninsured.
6) Before the 2010 health care reform makes all persons in poverty eligible for Medicaid (as it will in 2014 unless it this provision is removed) about 60% of persons living in poverty qualify for Medicaid, but many persons who qualify do not enroll and receive it, so about 39.5 million, or somewhere between 63% and 70% of all non-elderly persons in poverty are uninsured. About 56% of poor children are uninsured, and 60% of poor women are uninsured, and 75% of poor men are uninsured.
14) What is the program established in 1997 where the Federal Government gives money to states to provide insurance for children who are not poor enough to qualify for Medicaid?
1) Children’s Health Assistance Medical Program (CHAMP)
2) Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), sometimes called the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP).  [correct]
3) The “Kid’s Count” Program, sometimes called “All Kids” State Health Insurance Partnership.
4) Social Security Dependents’ Initiative (SSDI).
5) Supplemental National Administration for Children’s Health (SNACH).
6) The States’ Supplemental Insurance for Healthy Families (often called “State’s Supplemental Medical” for short).
15) If we considered how various nations rank in terms of life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and we were comparing the following seven nations, where would the United States rank (1st through 7th): Bulgaria, Canada, France, Hong Kong, Sweden, Turkey, and the United States of America.
1) First, the USA’s life expectancy and infant mortality rates are better than the other six countries listed.
2) Second, the USA’s life expectancy and infant mortality rates are exceeded only by Sweden.
3) Third, right behind Sweden and Hong Kong, but ahead of the other four.
4) Fourth, right in the middle behind Sweden, Hong Kong, and Canada, but ahead of France, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
5) Fifth, as Sweden, Hong Kong, Canada, and France have lower infant mortality rates and longer life expectancies than the USA, but Americans are (on average) healthier than Turks and Bulgarians. [correct]
6) Sixth, as Sweden, Hong Kong, Canada, France, and Bulgaria are doing better.  Only Turkey has shorter life expectancy rates and higher infant mortality rates.
16) Approximately what percent of the American economy is devoted to health care and medicine (% of GNP in the health care and health sectors)?
1) Popple and Leighninger present a chart showing that in 2006, the United States was devoting about 3% of its GDP to health care expenditures, but they also said we spent 4% of our economy (GDP) on health in 2007. Best current estimates are that we spend 5% of our GDP on health. Professor Hadley-Ives suggests about 5% of federal spending goes to health care, disease prevention, and health research expenses (most of it to health care).
2) Popple and Leighninger present a chart showing that in 2006, the United States was devoting about 6% of its GDP to health care expenditures, but they also said we spent 8% of our economy (GDP) on health in 2007. Best current estimates are that we spend 7.5% of our GDP on health. Professor Hadley-Ives suggests about 10% of federal spending goes to health care, disease prevention, and health research expenses (most of it to health care).
3) Popple and Leighninger present a chart showing that in 2006, the United States was devoting about 9% of its GDP to health care expenditures, but they also said we spend about 1/10th of our economy on health in 2007. Professor Hadley-Ives suggests about 15% of federal spending goes to health care, disease prevention, and health research expenses (most of it to health care).
4) Popple and Leighninger present a chart showing that in 2006, the United States was devoting about 12% of its GDP to health care expenditures, but they also said we spent 13% of our economy (GDP) on health in 2007. Best current estimates are that we spend 12.5% of our GDP on health. Professor Hadley-Ives suggests about 20% of federal spending goes to health care, disease prevention, and health research expenses (most of it to health care).
5) Popple and Leighninger present a chart showing that in 2006, the United States was devoting about 15% of its GDP to health care expenditures, but they also said we spent 18% of our economy (GDP) on health in 2007. Best current estimates are that we spend over 16% of our GDP on health. Professor Hadley-Ives suggests about 29% of federal spending goes to health care, disease prevention, and health research expenses (most of it to health care). [correct]
6) Popple and Leighninger present a chart showing that in 2006, the United States was devoting about 33% of its GDP to health care expenditures, but they also said we spent 28% of our economy (GDP) on health in 2007. Best current estimates are that we spend 26% of our GDP on health. Professor Hadley-Ives suggests about half of federal spending goes to health care, disease prevention, and health research expenses (most of it to health care).
17) Approximately what level of benefits might a disabled person with a serious mental illness or developmental disability expect to get through Supplemental Security Income (SSI)?
1)If they received the maximum benefit level, they would have received $423 per month from the federal government (in 2008, but $474 in 2010 & 2011), but most states contribute some matching funds and increase this.  But if they got the national average SSI benefit (after deducting for other income and so forth) they would have received about $300 to $350.
2) If they received the maximum benefit level, they would have received $523 per month from the federal government (in 2008, but $574 in 2010 & 2011), but most states contribute some matching funds and increase this.  But if they got the national average SSI benefit (after deducting for other income and so forth) they would have received about $400 to $450.
3) If they received the maximum benefit level, they would have received $623 per month from the federal government (in 2008, but $674 in 2010 & 2011), but most states contribute some matching funds and increase this.  But if they got the national average SSI benefit (after deducting for other income and so forth) they would have received about $500 to $550.  [correct]
4) If they received the maximum benefit level, they would have received $723 per month from the federal government (in 2008, but $774 in 2010 & 2011), but most states contribute some matching funds and increase this.  But if they got the national average SSI benefit (after deducting for other income and so forth) they would have received about $600 to $650.
5) If they received the maximum benefit level, they would have received $823 per month from the federal government (in 2008, but $874 in 2010 & 2011), but most states contribute some matching funds and increase this.  But if they got the national average SSI benefit (after deducting for other income and so forth) they would have received about $700 to $750.
6) If they received the maximum benefit level, they would have received $923 per month from the federal government (in 2008, but $974 in 2010 & 2011), but most states contribute some matching funds and increase this.  But if they got the national average SSI benefit (after deducting for other income and so forth) they would have received about $800 to $850.
18) Among those persons with mental illness who are living in institutionalized settings rather than living at home, which sort of institution is the most common place for them to be living?
1) State Hospitals.
2) Mental Health Residential Care Facilities, including both private and public care centers.
3) Prisons for the Criminally Insane.
4) Jails, prisons, and penitentiaries.  [correct]
5) State and County Sanatoriums or half-way houses.
6) Military Installations.
19) What is the nation's largest grassroots organization for people with mental illness and their families? This organization has a reputation especially as being a leading advocate for the families who bear the burden of care.
1) The Arc
2) The Grey Panthers
3) The Counsel for Mental Health Services (CMHS)
4) The Mental Health Association of America (MHAA)
5) The National Institutes of Mental Health (NIHM)
6) National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)  [correct]
20)What is the rate of investigation of child maltreatment in the United States (expressed as a number per 1,000 children)?
1) The annual investigation rate was about 9.7 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about the same in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably a little higher now, but you can approximate and estimate just under 10 per 1,000 (1 in 100) is a reasonable investigation rate.
2) The annual investigation rate was about 11.9 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about the same in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably a little higher now, but you can approximate and estimate just under 12.5 per 1,000 (1 in 80) is a reasonable investigation rate.
3) The annual investigation rate was about 47.8 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about the same in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably a little higher now, but you can approximate and estimate just under 50 per 1,000 (1 in 20) is a reasonable investigation rate.  [correct]
4) The annual investigation rate was about 66.4 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about the same in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably a little higher now, but you can approximate and estimate just under 67 per 1,000 (1 in 15) is a reasonable investigation rate.
5) The annual investigation rate was about 123 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about the same in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably a little higher now, but you can approximate and estimate just under 125 per 1,000 (1 in 8) is a reasonable investigation rate.
6) The annual investigation rate was about 165.5 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about the same in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably a little higher now, but you can approximate and estimate just under 167 per 1,000 (1 in 6) is a reasonable investigation rate.
21) What is the rate of determined child maltreatment in the United States, where an investigation by child welfare workers leads to a finding of “present” or “probable” (expressed as a number per 1,000 children)?
1) The annual victimization rate was about 4.4 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about 5.6 per 1,000 in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably significantly higher today (close to 7 per 1000). A recent study suggests the rate was 6.6 per 1,000 in 2007. Child protection workers find victimization and maltreatment in about 10% of the cases they investigate. However, the Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect’s January 2010 report suggested that using an “endangerment standard” nearly 20 per 1,000 American children experience maltreatment, and using a “harm standard” the maltreatment rate is about 8 per 1,000. Only about two-thirds of instances of abuse are ever investigated by child welfare services, and only half of neglect instances are investigated.
2) The annual victimization rate was about 11.9 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about 12.1 per 1,000 in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably not much different now (close to 12 per 1000). A recent study suggests the rate was 10.6 per 1,000 in 2007. Child protection workers find victimization and maltreatment in about 25% of the cases they investigate.  However, the Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect’s January 2010 report suggested that using an “endangerment standard” nearly 40 per 1,000 American children experience maltreatment, and using a “harm standard” the maltreatment rate is about 17 per 1,000. Only about half of instances of abuse are ever investigated by child welfare services, and a smaller faction of neglect instances are investigated.  [correct]
3) The annual victimization rate was about 16.4 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about 20.2 per 1,000 in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably up a few points by now (close to 25 per 1000). A recent study suggests the rate was 24.4 per 1,000 in 2007.  Child protection workers find victimization and maltreatment in about 50% of the cases they investigate. The Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect’s January 2010 report suggested that using an “endangerment standard” nearly 50 per 1,000 American children experience maltreatment, and using a “harm standard” the maltreatment rate is about 24 per 1,000. Only about a quarter of instances of abuse are ever investigated by child welfare services, but a larger faction of neglect instances are investigated.
4) The annual victimization rate was about 32.9 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about 33.4 per 1,000 in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably not much different now (close to 33 per 1000). A recent study suggests the rate was 33.1 per 1,000 in 2007. Child protection workers find victimization and maltreatment in about 50% of the cases they investigate. The Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect’s January 2010 report confirmed this, showing that using an “endangerment standard” nearly 34 per 1,000 American children experience maltreatment, and using a “harm standard” the maltreatment rate is about 28 per 1,000. Child welfare services investigate most actual instances of abuse, and investigate about half of neglect instances.
5) The annual victimization rate was about 61.5 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about 62.2 per 1,000 in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably not much different now (close to 62 per 1000). A recent study suggests the rate was 61.6 per 1,000 in 2007. Child protection workers find victimization and maltreatment in about 50% of the cases they investigate. The Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect’s January 2010 report showed that using an “endangerment standard” nearly 80 per 1,000 American children experience maltreatment, and using a “harm standard” the maltreatment rate is about 70 per 1,000. Child welfare services investigate about two-thirds of actual instances of abuse, but investigate a much smaller proportion of neglect instances.
6) The annual victimization rate was about 82.2 per 1,000 in 2004, and it was about 81.3 per 1,000 in 2006, and if general trends have continued, it’s probably a little lower now (close to 80 per 1000). A recent study suggests the rate was 80.1 per 1,000 in 2007. Child protection workers find victimization and maltreatment in about 50% of the cases they investigate. However, the Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect’s January 2010 report suggested that using an “endangerment standard” more than 130 per 1,000 American children experience maltreatment, and using a “harm standard” the maltreatment rate is about 97 per 1,000. Child welfare workers only investigate about three-quarters of instances of abuse and one quarter of neglect instances.

22) What is a reasonable estimate of lifetime experience of maltreatment?  That is, how many Americans experience, during childhood, maltreatment during some period of time in their lives (expressed as a number per 1,000 children)?
1) 136 per 1000 is a reasonable estimate of lifetime maltreatment experience rates. [correct]
2) 194 per 1000 is a reasonable estimate of lifetime maltreatment experience rates.
3) 222 per 1000 is a reasonable estimate of lifetime maltreatment experience rates.
4) 255 per 1000 is a reasonable estimate of lifetime maltreatment experience rates.
5) 308 per 1000 is a reasonable estimate of lifetime maltreatment experience rates.
6) 364 per 1000 is a reasonable estimate of lifetime maltreatment experience rates.
23) About what percent of the elderly live in nursing homes?
1) Between 4.5% and 7% of all elderly, but only 1% of those aged 65-75, but 18% of those over 85. [correct]
2) Between 7.5% and 8% of all elderly, but only 2% of those aged 65-75, but 28% of those over 85.
3) Between 8.5% and 10% of all elderly, but only 3% of those aged 65-75, but 32% of those over 85.
4) Between 10.5% and 12% of all elderly, but only 4% of those aged 65-75, but 38% of those over 85.
5) Between 12.5% and 14% of all elderly, but only 5% of those aged 65-75, but 42% of those over 85.
6) Between 14.5% and 16% of all elderly, but only 6% of those aged 65-75, but 52% of those over 85.
24) Which law eliminated age-based mandatory retirement in almost all job settings?
1) The 1954 Civil Rights Act
2) The Older Americans Act of 1965.
3) The 1967 Age Discrimination in Employment Act.   [correct]
4) The Older Americans Act of 1972.
5) The 1978 Amendment to the Social Security Act.
6) The 1981 Age Discrimination in Employment Act.
25)What percentage of Americans are self-identified as European-American with no other racial identity and no Hispanic ethnicity? [from recent Census Bureau data]
1) 53%
2) 58%
3) 65%   [correct]
4) 72%
5) 81%
6) 85%
26)What percentage of Americans claim Hispanic ethnicity (including all races identifying themselves as Hispanic)? [from recent Census Bureau data]
1) 6%
2) 8%
3) 10%
4) 12%
5) 16%   [correct]
6) 22%
27)What percentage of Americans self-identify as African-American with no other racial identity and no Hispanic ethnicity?
1) 10%
2) 12%   [correct]
3) 16%
4) 20%
5) 24%
6) 30%
28) What percentage of Americans self-identify as Asian-American with no other racial identity and no Hispanic ethnicity? [from recent Census Bureau data]
1) 2.6%
2) 4.6%   [correct]
3) 6.6%
4) 9.1%
5) 12.1%
6) 15.1%
29)What percentage of Americans self-identify as having multiple (two or more) racial identities and no Hispanic ethnicity? [from recent Census Bureau data]
1) 1.7%   [correct]
2) 3.7%
3) 5.7%
4) 7.1%
5) 9.1%
6) 11.1%
30) What percentage of Americans self-identify as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islander with no other racial identity and no Hispanic ethnicity?
1) 0.9%
2) 1.2%   [correct]
3) 2.2%
4) 3.9%
5) 4.9%
6) 5.9%
31) What did the Fahy Committee do in 1949?
1) They proposed opening all army jobs and schools to qualified personnel without regard to race or color, assigning all Army personnel according to ability and need, and abolishing the racial quota. This led to the January 1950 special regulation that prescribed that “Negroes with appropriate skills and qualifications be utilized and assigned according to these skills and qualifications without regard to race or color” within the United States Armed Forces, ending forever the policy of racial segregation first introduced by General George Washington during the siege of Boston. [correct]
2) They joined with the Chamberlin Board and the Gillem Board in favoring a gradual and incremental policy of slowly removing segregation in the military, because rapid integration would adversely affect the fighting spirit and morale of the Army in general.  This led to the gradual integration of the armed forces during the first decade of the cold war, with some units being integrated during the Korean War, but full integration not coming until half-way through the Vietnam War.
3) They approved a plan suggested by Thurgood Marshall to integrate the schools of Kansas after the Brown v Board of Education decision the previous year determined that public schools could not be legally segregated by race. This “Marshall Plan” was the blueprint for the dismantling of Jim Crow laws that had segregated American education every since the notorious Plessey v. Ferguson case had determined that public schools could be separate and equal.
4) The Fahy Committee approved a plan drafted by FDR before he died, and later modified by President Harry Truman, to institute the recommendations of the Beverage Report (of 1943) that had suggested a series of social welfare policies to provide health care, housing, college educations, and old-age pensions to veterans of the Second World War. The Fahy Committee’s approval of this presidential plan led the then Republican-controlled Congress to a cooperative consensus with the president, which enabled the rapid enactment of several key provisions of the New Deal.
5) The Fahy Committee approved a draft of the new social security bill that was submitted to Congress, where it was approved in 1950 as the Title IX Social Security Amendment. This was an amendment to the Social Security Act of 1928 that did three things.  First, it allowed mortgage interest tax deductions on income tax returns of persons paying interest on their mortgage loans. Second, it provided funding for public housing, which was a new policy to provide housing to many veterans of World War II.  Third, it established a massive jobs program in the construction of a new transportation infrastructure, which became the interstate highway system.
6) The Fahy Committee approved the establishment of the Veterans’ Administration as a new agency of the federal government that would be independent of the American armed forces, but would provide life-long medical care to veterans. This was the first step toward a system of national single-payer health care, as it provided medical care and medical insurance to every American who had served in the military, which in 1949 was almost 75% of the male population.
32) What percentage of Americans are foreign-born, and what percentage of native-born?
1) 5.85% in 2003, and possibly more than 7% by now, were born outside the United States. Thus, about 93% of American residents are native-born citizens. A little over 4% of American residents are foreign-born naturalized American citizens, and over 2% are foreign-born non-citizens (including those who are documented and those who aren’t).
2) 8.85% in 2003, and possibly more than 10% by now, were born outside the United States. Thus, about 90% of American residents are native-born citizens. A little over 4% of American residents are foreign-born naturalized American citizens, and over 5% are foreign-born non-citizens (including those who are documented and those who aren’t).
3) 11.85% in 2003, and possibly more than 13% by now, were born outside the United States. Thus, about 87% of American residents are native-born citizens. A little over 5% of American residents are foreign-born naturalized American citizens, and over 7% are foreign-born non-citizens (including those who are documented and those who aren’t).  [correct]
4) 14.85% in 2003, and possibly more than 16% by now, were born outside the United States. Thus, about 84% of American residents are native-born citizens. A little over 5% of American residents are foreign-born naturalized American citizens, and over 10% are foreign-born non-citizens (including those who are documented and those who aren’t).
5) 17.85% in 2003, and possibly more than 19% by now, were born outside the United States. Thus, about 81% of American residents are native-born citizens. A little over 8% of American residents are foreign-born naturalized American citizens, and over 10% are foreign-born non-citizens (including those who are documented and those who aren’t).
6) 19.85% in 2003, and possibly more than 21% by now, were born outside the United States. Thus, about 79% of American residents are native-born citizens. A little over 8% of American residents are foreign-born naturalized American citizens, and over 12% are foreign-born non-citizens (including those who are documented and those who aren’t).
33) What famous housing complex in Saint Louis was torn down in 1972? It was constructed in such a way that poor people were isolated from jobs, shopping, schools, and recreational opportunities. Elevators only stopped on every third floor (when they even worked), and the plumbing was shoddy, and frequently failed This was a vast housing complex on the city's north side, concentrating poor people in this area of the city.
1)  Pruitt-Igoe   [correct]
2)   Cochran Gardens
3)   Robert Taylor Homes
4)   Ida B. Wells and Madden Park Housing Project
5)   Cabrini Green
6)   Altgeld Gardens in the Roseland neighborhood.
34) About how many homeless persons were counted in Springfield in the census of homelessness on one night in January of 2007, and what is a reasonable estimate for the number of homeless persons in shelters and on the street (not counting those doubled up) on any given night in the USA?
1)     On January 26, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois there were 87 homeless individuals in shelters or unhoused. On any given night in America there might be between 100,000 and 150,000 homeless.  A recent national census for 2009 suggested a count of 156,000 homeless in shelters, transitional housing, and living rough on a single night. Springfield, Illinois makes up about 0.04% of the country’s population, and 87 is about 0.04% of 239,000.
2)   On January 26, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois there were 112 homeless individuals in shelters or unhoused. On any given night in America there might be between 150,000 and 200,000 .  A recent national census for 2009 suggested a count of 256,000 homeless in shelters, transitional housing, and living rough on a single night. Springfield, Illinois makes up about 0.04% of the country’s population, and 112 is about 0.04% of 308,000.
3)   On January 26, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois there were 154 homeless individuals in shelters or unhoused. On any given night in America there might be between 200,000 and 333,000 .  A recent national census for 2009 suggested a count of 356,000 homeless in shelters, transitional housing, and living rough on a single night.  Springfield, Illinois makes up about 0.04% of the country’s population, and 154 is about 0.04% of 423,000.
4)   On January 26, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois there were 181 homeless individuals in shelters or unhoused. On any given night in America there might be between 250,000 and 500,000 homeless.  A recent national census for 2009 suggested a count of 456,000 homeless in shelters, transitional housing, and living rough on a single night. Springfield, Illinois makes up about 0.04% of the country’s population, and 181 is about 0.04% of 497,000.
5)   On January 26, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois there were 206 homeless individuals in shelters or unhoused. On any given night in America there might be between 400,000 and 600,000 homeless.  A recent national census for 2009 suggested a count of 556,000 homeless in shelters, transitional housing, and living rough on a single night. Springfield, Illinois makes up about 0.04% of the country’s population, and 206 is about 0.04% of 566,000.
6)   On January 26, 2007 in Springfield, Illinois there were 303 homeless individuals in shelters or unhoused. On any given night in America there might be between 600,000 and 800,000 homeless.  A recent national census for 2009 suggested a count of 656,000 homeless in shelters, transitional housing, and living rough on a single night. Springfield, Illinois makes up about 0.04% of the country’s population, and 303 is about 0.04% of 833,000. [correct]
35) Who is being described? Became a leader in the Baltimore Charity Organization Society, becoming its director in 1891. Was instrumental in establishing scientific casework as a foundation of social work practice. Wrote Social Diagnosis to describe how to do social casework, suggesting a way to do one-on-one assessment with persons or families that needed help.
1)    Jane Addams
2)   Frances Perkins
3)   Bertha Capen Reynolds
4)   Mary Richmond [correct]
5)   Virginia Satir
6)   Ida B. Wells
36) Who is being described? From a small town in Nebraska, this person believed that social work should become a profession based upon scientific understanding of problems.  Promoted social welfare as a legitimate concern of social work. Served as Head of the U.S. Children’s Bureau from 1921-1933, and helped draft the law that became Aid to Families with Dependent Children (the precursor to TANF). 
1)    Grace Abbott [correct]
2)    Saul Alinksy
3)   Fannie Lou Hamer
4)   Harry Hopkins
5)   Christine Radogno
6)   Josephine Shaw Lowell
37) The National Evaluation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program followed conditions for the former welfare recipients for two years after program enrollment. One point was that among employed graduates of the welfare-to-work programs, a certain percentage were participating in employer-sponsored health insurance plans two years after starting the welfare-to-work program. Approximately what was the rate of the workers enjoying this employer-insurance benefit? (Hint: Boston, Chicago, Ft. Worth, and Philadelphia all had rates close to this).
1)   12% - 13%.  About an eighth.
2)   16% - 17%.  About a sixth.
3)   19% - 20% - 21%.  About a fifth.   [correct]
4)   24% - 25% - 26%.  About a quarter.
5)   32% - 33% - 34%.  About a third.
6)    48% - 49% - 50%.  About half.
38) Studies of how single mothers leave poverty find what percentage stay out of poverty for a long time (are “poverty leavers”)?
1) 7% - 8% - 9%.
2) 11% - 12% - 13%.
3) 15% - 16% - 17%.
4)   21% - 22% - 23%.
5)   27% - 28% - 29%.    [correct]
6)   55% - 56% - 57%. 
39) Studies of how single mothers leave poverty find what percentage cycle in and out of poverty, enduring short periods of poverty mixed with periods out of poverty? (are “poverty cyclers”)?
1) 7% - 8% - 9%.
2) 11% - 12% - 13%.
3) 15% - 16% - 17%.
4)   21% - 22% - 23%.
5)   27% - 28% - 29%.
6)   55% - 56% - 57%.    [correct]
40)Studies of how single mothers leave poverty find what percentage soon return to poverty and remain poor for extended periods? (are “poverty returners”)?
1) 7% - 8% - 9%.
2) 11% - 12% - 13%.
3) 15% - 16% - 17%.    [correct]
4)   21% - 22% - 23%.
5)   27% - 28% - 29%.
6)   55% - 56% - 57%.
41) About what is-was the national unemployment in January of 2011?
1)    It was 4.9% in January of 2011, but it is now up at 5.2% (as of March).
2)   It was 5.0% in January of 2011, but it is now up at 5.8% (as of March).
3)   It was 6.0% in January of 2011, but it is now up at 6.7% (as of March).
4)     It was 7.9% in January of 2011, but it is now down at 7.6% (as of March).
5)   It was 9.0% in January of 2011, but it is now down at 8.8% (as of March).
6)   It was 10.0% in January of 2011, but it is now down at 9.7% (as of March).
42) What would we have for an unemployment rate if we compared the total labor force to the number of workers who are unemployed, employed part-time when they want to be employed full-time, or out of the labor force although they want a job and have actively looked for a job recently?
1) 11.3 million unemployed, underemployed, or discouraged and a labor force of 101.2 million, for a “real” unemployment rate of 11.2%.
2) 13.5 million unemployed, underemployed, or discouraged and a labor force of 112.2 million, for a “real” unemployment rate of 12.0%.
3) 15.7 million unemployed, underemployed, or discouraged and a labor force of 123.2 million, for a “real” unemployment rate of 12.7%.
4) 17.9 million unemployed, underemployed, or discouraged and a labor force of 134.2 million, for a “real” unemployment rate of 13.3%.
5) 22.8 million unemployed, underemployed, or discouraged and a labor force of 154.3 million, for a “real” unemployment rate of 14.8%.
6) 29.3 million unemployed, underemployed, or discouraged and a labor force of 166.2 million, for a “real” unemployment rate of 16.8%.
43) About what percentage of Americans (family-household population) are living in families in which over half of the family’s annual income was received from TANF, SSI, and/or SNAP benefits (were living with Welfare dependence)?  How many Americans is that?
1) Welfare dependency rates have recently been between 2.25% and 2.75%, which means that about 7.2 million Americans live in welfare dependent households, or perhaps even 8 million or more now.
2) Welfare dependency rates have recently been between 3.5% and 4%, which means that about 10.75 million Americans live in welfare dependent households, or perhaps even 11 million or more now. [correct]
3) Welfare dependency rates have recently been between 5% and 5.5%, which means that about 15 million Americans live in welfare dependent households, or perhaps even 16 million or more now.
4)     Welfare dependency rates have recently been between 6.25% and 6.75%, which means that about 18.67 million Americans live in welfare dependent households, or perhaps even 19 million or more now.
5)   Welfare dependency rates have recently been between 7.5% and 8%, which means that about 22.25 million Americans live in welfare dependent households, or perhaps even 23 million or more now.
6)   Welfare dependency rates have recently been between 9.5% and 10%, which means that about 28 million Americans live in welfare dependent households, or perhaps even 29 million or more now.
44) What was the rate of welfare dependence for Non-Hispanic European-Americans?
1) 2.2% of Non-Hispanic European-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005. [correct]
2) 4.2% of Non-Hispanic European-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
3) 6.2% of Non-Hispanic European-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
4) 7.2% of Non-Hispanic European-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
5) 8.2% of Non-Hispanic European-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
6) 10.2% of Non-Hispanic European-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
45) What was the rate of welfare dependence for Non-Hispanic African-Americans?
1) 2.2% of Non-Hispanic African-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
2) 4.2% of Non-Hispanic African-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
3) 6.2% of Non-Hispanic African-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
4) 7.2% of Non-Hispanic African-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
5) 8.2% of Non-Hispanic African-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
6) 10.2% of Non-Hispanic African-Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005. [correct]
46) What was the rate of welfare dependence for Hispanics?
1) 1.7% of Hispanic Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
2) 3.7% of Hispanic Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
3) 5.7% of Hispanic Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005. [correct]
4) 7.7% of Hispanic Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
5) 9.7% of Hispanic Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
6) 11.7% of Hispanic Americans lived in welfare dependent households in 2005.
47) A recipiency rate is the the percentage of Americans living in families in which someone received some TANF, SSI, or SNAP benefits in the course of a year.  About what is the recipiency rate in the United States, and how many people (approximately) is that?
1) About 15.3% of American residents live in a household where someone is receiving TANF, SSI, or SNAP (Food Stamps). That is about 47 million given our present population. [correct]
2) About 20.3% of American residents live in a household where someone is receiving TANF, SSI, or SNAP (Food Stamps). That is about 57 million given our present population.
3) About 25.3% of American residents live in a household where someone is receiving TANF, SSI, or SNAP (Food Stamps). That is about 77 million given our present population.
4) About 30.3% of American residents live in a household where someone is receiving TANF, SSI, or SNAP (Food Stamps). That is about 82 million given our present population.
5) About 35.3% of American residents live in a household where someone is receiving TANF, SSI, or SNAP (Food Stamps). That is about 112 million given our present population.
6) About 40.3% of American residents live in a household where someone is receiving TANF, SSI, or SNAP (Food Stamps). That is about 125 million given our present population.
48) According to the Census Bureau, what percent distribution of aggregate income was earned by the top 5 percent of American households in 2005?
1) About 18% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 5% of high income families.
2) About 22% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 5% of high income families. [correct]
3) About 27% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 5% of high income families.
4) About 31% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 5% of high income families.
5) About 36% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 5% of high income families.
6) About 48% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 5% of high income families.
49) What was the percent of all income reported to the IRS in 2006 (for earnings in 2005) that was claimed by the 3.94% of reported incomes in which reported income was over $200,000?  In other words, what percentage of total income was earned by the people at the top 3.94% of the nation’s income distribution—the people who reported over $200,000 in income?
1) About 20.20% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 3.94% of tax payers
2) About 21.62% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 3.94% of tax payers
3) About 29.24% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 3.94% of tax payers [correct]
4) About 33.62% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 3.94% of tax payers
5) About 36.27% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 3.94% of tax payers
6) About 42.65% of all income in 2005 was earned by the top 3.94% of tax payers
50) About how much of our national wealth is owned by the richest 1% of our population?
1) About a seventh, or somewhere between 14% and 18%
2) About a fifth, or somewhere between 18% and 23%
3) About a quarter, or somewhere between 22% and 28%
4) About a third, or somewhere between 30% and 33%
5) Over a third, about two-fifths, or somewhere between 34% and 40% [correct]
6) About half, or somewhere between 48% and 53%
51) Using the American government’s definition of poverty, how many Americans are estimated to be living under poverty, and what percentage of our population is that?
1) In 2009, between 5.8% and 6.2% of Americans lived in households with reported incomes that put their households under the official poverty line.  That represents slightly under 12 million poor persons.  The number is likely to have been lower in 2009.
2) In 2009, between 7.8% and 8.2% of Americans lived in households with reported incomes that put their households under the official poverty line.  That represents about 16.5 million poor persons.  The number is likely to have been higher in 2010.
3) In 2009, between 13.8% and 14.2% of Americans lived in households with reported incomes that put their households under the official poverty line.  That represents slightly over 42 million poor persons.  The number is likely to have been higher in 2010. [correct]
4) In 2009, between 8.8% and 9.2% of Americans lived in households with reported incomes that put their households under the official poverty line.  That represents 47 million poor persons.  The number is likely to have been about the same in 2010.
5) In 2009, between 6.8% and 7.2% of Americans lived in households with reported incomes that put their households under the official poverty line.  That represents nearly 29 million poor persons.  The number is likely to have been about the same in 2010.
6) In 2009, between 18.8% and 19.2% of Americans lived in households with reported incomes that put their households under the official poverty line.  That represents over 73 million poor persons.  The number is likely to have been lower in 2010.

Identify this theory:
52) Persons who commit crime share mainstream values of advancement and success, but barriers to achieving success thwart some ambitions and aspirations. In response to their realization that they are inadequately socialized or trained, some people drop out and give up on achieving mainstream material lifestyles, while others try to achieve mainstream material success through deviant (criminal) means. The fact that people who commit crimes happen to associate together reflects the fact that people have reached similar conclusions and strategies in response to similar circumstances, and their associations are not a form of socialization that creates or perpetuates a deviant group with criminal values. Theorists associated with this approach include Robert Merton, Robert Agnew, Albert Cohen, Richard Cloward, and Lloyd Ohlin.
1) Cultural Deviance Theory
2) Labeling Theory
3) Differential Association Theory
4) Strain Theory [correct]
5) Psychological Control Theory
6) Social Control Theory
53) Which of the following developmental disabilities is more common?
1)   Autism
2)   Cerebral Palsy
3)   Mild Mental Retardation [correct]
4)   Moderate Mental Retardation
5)   Profound Mental Retardation
6)   Severe Mental Retardation

54) What type of problem in functioning of the parent-child-community role network is illustrated in the following situation:
A poor, single parent with few family supports or resources has been unemployed and has been receiving TANF benefits. In order to continue receiving TANF, this parent must participate in a work program. The work program and skills-training system offered locally requires the parent to take a 90-minutes bus ride each way to a workplace, and also demands that the parent attend some evening job-seeking skills development classes. The caseworkers have not helped the parent find child care during the evening classes, nor have they found help or alternative work assignments to address the situation that the children are alone in the morning or evening when they leave for school or return.
Thus, the parent leaves for work at 6:45 each morning for work, and the children must go out to catch their school bus an hour later. The parent returns home around 6:00 p.m., about an hour after the children return home. The parent's children are aged 11 and 7. The children have missed several days of school, and are often late to school, because they sometimes miss the bus, and when they do, they either walk to school or else stay at home for the day.
When the children come home from school, they have occasionally forgotten to carry their keys with them, and have waited outdoors for over an hour for their parent to arrive home, even in very severe cold weather or dangerous storms. Teachers and neighbors have reported the parent to child services for child neglect.
1) Child incapacity and/or disability
2) Deficiency of community resources. [correct]
3) Interrole conflict
4) Parental incapacity
5) Parental psychopathy
6) Role rejection

Knowing how much stuff costs:
55) Approximately what is the total taxpayer (public) investment in formal school education in the United States (combined K-12 spending and higher education spending)?
1) Total taxpayer investment in K-12 education in the United States (in 2005) exceeded $426 billion, and higher education gets another $273 billion in spending, for a total near $700 billion. Given a GDP of about $14 trillion, this is approximately 5% of the GDP in public spending on education. In 2001 the United States spent about $500 billion on education, which was reckoned as about 4.8% of GDP by the OCLC’s 2003 Environmental Scan (perhaps they were including only K-12 education).
2) Total taxpayer investment in K-12 education in the United States (in 2005) exceeded $536 billion, and higher education gets another $373 billion in spending, for a total over $900 billion. Given a GDP of about $14 trillion, this is approximately 6.4% of the GDP in public spending on education. In 2001 the United States spent about $500 billion on education, which was reckoned as about 4.8% of GDP by the OCLC’s 2003 Environmental Scan (perhaps they were including only K-12 education).  [correct]
3) Total taxpayer investment in K-12 education in the United States (in 2005) exceeded $625 billion, and higher education gets another $475 billion in spending, for a total near $1.1 trillion. Given a GDP of about $14 trillion, this is approximately 7.9% of the GDP in public spending on education. In 2001 the United States spent about $500 billion on education, which was reckoned as about 4.8% of GDP by the OCLC’s 2003 Environmental Scan.
4) Total taxpayer investment in K-12 education in the United States (in 2005) exceeded $618 billion, and higher education gets another $181 billion in spending, for a total near $800 billion. Given a GDP of about $14 trillion, this is approximately 5.7% of the GDP in public spending on education. In 2001 the United States spent about $500 billion on education, which was reckoned as about 4.8% of GDP by the OCLC’s 2003 Environmental Scan.
5) Total taxpayer investment in K-12 education in the United States (in 2005) exceeded $948 billion, and higher education gets another $451 billion in spending, for a total approaching $1.4 trillion. Given a GDP of about $14 trillion, this is approximately 10% of the GDP in public spending on education. In 2001 the United States spent about $900 billion on education, which was reckoned as about 3.8% of GDP by the OCLC’s 2003 Environmental Scan. (There seems to have been a massive increase in public education spending in the past seven or eight years).
6) Total taxpayer investment in K-12 education in the United States (in 2005) exceeded $1.316 trillion, and higher education gets another $484 billion in spending, for a total of approximately $1.8 trillion. Given a GDP of about $14 trillion, this is approximately 12.9% of the GDP in public spending on education. In 2001 the United States spent about $900 billion on education, which was reckoned as about 3.8% of GDP by the OCLC’s 2003 Environmental Scan (There seems to have been a massive increase in public education spending in the past seven or eight years).
56) If we consider the budgets of the Department of Defense, Homeland Security, special spending on Iraq and Afghanistan, Foreign Intelligence Agencies, and the Veterans Administration, what approximately is the total—the total amount spent on our national defense and security? I’m asking for FY 2011 or FY 2012 levels (current spending), so the number might be higher than numbers in your readings or materials I used when I was comparing defense spending to other spending back in 2005 or 2003.
1) We clearly spend over $200 billion on defense.
2) We clearly spend over $300 billion on defense.
3) We clearly spend over $400 billion on defense.
4) We clearly spend over $500 billion on defense.
5) We clearly spend over $600 billion on defense. [this is a number that was accurate for 2003-2005]
6) We clearly spend over $700 billion on defense. [correct]
57) How much do we spend on crime and prisons and the legal system to put people in confinement or probation (including jails, prisons, courts, police, and associated expenses)?  Specifically, if you combine the budgets of: 1) the Department of Justice; 2) other federal spending on crime, courts, and justice; 3) local and state law enforcement budgets; and 4) local and state courts, penitentiaries, and jails (but excluding the costs of pensions for local police and sheriff department retirees), what is the total cost?
1) If you combine the $28 billion spent by the Department of Justice (plus about another $9 billion spent at the federal level on crime, courts, and justice) with the costs of local and state law enforcement, courts, and penitentiaries and jails you end up with about $190 billion. That’s a little more than one-fifth of what we spend on education and a little less than a quarter of what we spend on defense and homeland security in this country. [correct]
2)   If you combine the $20 billion spent by the Department of Justice (plus about another 5 billion spent at the federal level on crime, courts, and justice) with the costs of local and state law enforcement, courts, and penitentiaries and jails you end up with about $125 billion. That’s about 14% (around one-seventh) of what we spend on education and about 21% (just over one-fifth) of what we spend on defense in this country.
3)   The Federal government spends about $20 billion on crime and justice or crime prevention and federal prisons, but if you add state and local spending you end up with total public spending around $100 billion. That’s about 11% (around one-ninth) of what we spend on education and about 17% (about one-sixth) of what we spend on defense in this country.
4)   The Federal government spends about $10 billion on crime and justice or crime prevention and federal prisons, but if you add state and local spending you end up with total public spending around $60 billion. That’s about 6.7% (around one-fifteenth) of what we spend on education and about 10% (about one-tenth) of what we spend on defense in this country.
5)   The Department of Justice has a budget of about $40 billion. States and local governments match this spending, so that the total American public spending on police, courts, prisons, and other justice-and-crime related polices is about $80 billion. That’s about 9% (around one-eleventh) of what we spend on education and about 13% (just over one-eighth) of what we spend on defense in this country.
6)   Total public spending on crime, including prisons and jails, courts and criminal trials, prevention programs, and the salaries and benefits for police and other professionals involved in the criminal justice and correctional industries amounts to $1.8 trillion. That’s about 200% (about twice) what we spend on education and about 300% (about three times) what we spend on defense in this country.
58) Social Security accounts for approximately what percent of all Federal spending?
1) Social Security makes up about 9% to 11% of all government outlays.  You can say one tenth and be approximately correct. Social Security spending out of the trust fund (off budget) was about $200 billion in 2008. In 2009 if you combine the estimated $226 billion of off budget social security with the $74 billion on budget you get a total of nearly $300 billion in all Social Security Administration spending, including old age pensions, SSDI, and so forth. In a normal year $300 billion would be over 11% of all federal spending, but the special stimulus package spending in 2008-2009 makes Social Security spending closer to 9% of spending these days. The White House estimates OASDI spending in FY 2011 will be $318 billion, and in FY 2012 it will be $351 billion.
2)   Social Security makes up about 12% to 13% of all government outlays.  You can say one eighth to one seventh and be approximately correct. Social Security spending out of the trust fund (off budget) was about $400 billion in 2008. In 2009 if you combine the estimated $456 billion of off budget social security with the $24 billion on budget you get a total of nearly $500 billion in all Social Security Administration spending, including old age pensions, SSDI, and so forth. In a normal year $500 billion would be almost a sixth of all federal spending, but the special stimulus package spending in 2008-2009 makes Social Security spending closer to 12% of spending these days. The White House estimates OASDI spending in FY 2011 will be $518 billion, and in FY 2012 it will be $541 billion.
3)   Social Security makes up about 21% to 24% of all government outlays.  You can say one fifth or one quarter and be approximately correct. Social Security spending out of the trust fund (off budget) was about $600 billion in 2008. In 2009 if you combine the estimated $626 billion of off budget social security with the $66 billion on budget you get a total of nearly $700 billion in all Social Security Administration spending, including old age pensions, SSDI, and so forth. In a normal year $700 billion would be a quarter of all federal spending, but the special stimulus package spending in 2008-2009 makes Social Security spending closer to 20% of spending these days. The White House estimates OASDI spending in FY 2011 will be $728 billion, and in FY 2012 it will be $761 billion. [correct]
4)   Social Security makes up about 33% to 35% of all government outlays.  You can say one third and be approximately correct. Social Security spending out of the trust fund (off budget) was about 900 billion in 2008. In 2009 if you combine the estimated 940 billion of off budget social security with the $56 billion on budget you get a total of nearly $1 trillion in all Social Security Administration spending, including old age pensions, SSDI, and so forth. In a normal year $1 trillion would be a third of all federal spending, but the special stimulus package spending in 2008-2009 makes Social Security spending closer to 25% of spending these days. The White House estimates OASDI spending in FY 2011 will be $1.15 trillion, and in FY 2012 it will be $1.26 trillion.
5)   Social Security makes up about 50% of all government outlays.  You can say half and be approximately correct. Social Security spending out of the trust fund (off budget) was about 1.6 trillion in 2008. In 2009 if you combine the estimated $1.7 trillion of off budget social security with the $200 billion on budget you get a total of nearly $1.9 trillion in all Social Security Administration spending, including old age pensions, SSDI, and so forth. In a normal year $1.9 trillion would be over half of all federal spending, but the special stimulus package spending in 2008-2009 makes Social Security spending closer to 40% of spending these days. The White House estimates OASDI spending in FY 2011 will be $2.1 trillion, and in FY 2012 it will be $2.4 trillion.
6)   Social Security makes up about 66% to 75% of all government outlays.  You can say two thirds or three quarters and be approximately correct. Social Security spending out of the trust fund (off budget) was about $2.6 trillion in 2008. In 2009 if you combine the estimated $2.7 trillion of off budget social security with the $200 billion on budget you get a total of nearly $2.9 in all Social Security Administration spending, including old age pensions, SSDI, and so forth. In a normal year $2.9 trillion would be three quarters of all federal spending, but the special stimulus package spending in 2008-2009 makes Social Security spending closer to 60% of spending these days. The White House estimates OASDI spending in FY 2011 will be $3.1 trillion, and in FY 2012 it will be $3.4 trillion.
59) Medicare accounts for approximately what percent of all Federal spending?
1) With spending around $200 billion (or $250 billion in 2010 and $300 billion in 2011) Medicare accounts for 7%, 8.2%, or 10.1% of the budget, depending on what year you examine.  The point is, it’s growing.
2) With spending around $300 billion (or $320 billion in 2010 and $350 billion in 2011) Medicare accounts for 9.6%, 10.1%, or 11.2% of the budget, depending on what year you examine.  The point is, it’s growing.
3) With spending around $450 billion (or $447 billion in 2010 and $489 billion in 2011) Medicare accounts for 12.8% or 12.9% of the budget, depending on what year you examine.  The point is, it’s growing.  [correct]
4)   With spending around $500 billion (or $550 billion in 2010 and $600 billion in 2011) Medicare accounts for 14.6% or 14.8% of the budget, depending on what year you examine.  The point is, it’s growing.
5)     With spending around $600 billion (or $550 billion in 2010 and $500 billion in 2011) Medicare accounts for 16.2% or 14.4% of the budget, depending on what year you examine.  The point is, it’s shrinking.
6)   With spending around $700 billion (or $650 billion in 2010 and $600 billion in 2011) Medicare accounts for 14%, 13.1%, or 12.4% of the budget, depending on what year you examine.  The point is, it’s shrinking.
60) What is the most recent budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)?
1)   Somewhere between $25 and $30 billion (discretionary budget authority), or $35 billion (total outlays).
2)   Somewhere between $35 and $45 billion (discretionary budget authority), or $60 billion (total outlays).  [correct]
3)   Somewhere between $60 and $70 billion (discretionary budget authority), or $85 billion (total outlays).
4)   Somewhere between $85 and $95 billion (discretionary budget authority), or $100 billion (total outlays).
5)   Somewhere between $110 and $120 billion (discretionary budget authority), or $135 billion (total outlays).
6)   Somewhere between $135 and $145 billion (discretionary budget authority), or $160 billion (total outlays).
61) What is the recent total tax expenditure cost (tax revenue that the government doesn't collect because of a tax deduction given to taxpayers) of the deductions for home mortgage interest and property taxes?
1)   $11.6 billion.
2)   Somewhere between $15 and $20 billion.
3)   Somewhere between $25 and $35 billion.
4)   Somewhere between $40 and $55 billion.
5)   Getting close to $75 billion, and is probably between $50 billion and $75 billion.
6)   Getting close to $100 billion, and is probably between $95 billion and $110 billion in FY 2011. [correct]
62) Approximately how much money did the city of Springfield, Illinois get from Community Development Block Grants and HUD’s HOME funds to work on neighborhood revitalization and low-income housing or community development a few years ago, and how much does it get now (in FY 2010 and FY 2011?). (Out of the $190 million total budget, of which about $107 is in the Corporate Fund portion)?
1)   A few years ago, about half-a-million, give or take a $100,000. In FY 2010: $350,000; in FY 2011: $480,000.
2)    A few years ago, about $1 million, give or take a $250,000. In FY 2010: $1.05 million; in FY 2011: $1.8 million.
3)    A few years ago, about $4 million, give or take a million.  In FY 2010: $2.05 million; in FY 2011: $2.8 million. [correct]
4)   About $8 million, give or take a million. In FY 2010: $1.05 million; in FY 2011: $1.8 million.
5)   About $14 million, give or take a million or two. In FY 2010: $11.05 million; in FY 2011: $12.8 million.
6)   About $24 million, give or take a few million. In FY 2010: $22.05 million; in FY 2011: $23.8 million.
63) What is a reasonable estimate for the number of homeless persons in shelters and on the street (not counting those doubled up) for at least one night over the course of a year?  That is, how many persons have experienced homelessness over the course of a year?
1) Perhaps 150,000 to 200,000 persons experience homelessness in a year. If we include those who informally doubled-up, the figure would be around a million.
2) Perhaps 250,000 to 333,000 persons experience homelessness in a year. If we include those who informally doubled-up, the figure would be around a million.
3) About 650 thousand Americans will experience homelessness at some time in the course of a whole year, and probably over a million persons experience homelessness if we include those who live informally doubled-up.
4)   This number experiencing homelessness in a year would be nearly a million, perhaps 800,000 to 900,000. If we included those who doubled up for some time during a year it would be over 1 million who experience homelessness.
5)   If in any given day there are over half-a-million, the annual incidence number would be in the millions, perhaps 2 or 3 million, but two or three times as many if we count people who double-up informally. [correct]
6)    This number would be in the tens of millions, perhaps 10 or 20 million, as it approaches 10% of the total population. On any given day there are over two million homeless persons, so the annual incidence is much higher.
64) According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, about how many millions of Americans live in low food security?
1) About 2.9% of American households were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-third of these households (a total of about 1% of American households) had very low food security - meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food.
2) About 4.9% of American households were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-fifth of these households (a total of about 1% of American households) had very low food security - meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food.
3) About 6.9% of American households were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-quarter of these households (a total of about 1.7% of American households) had very low food security - meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food.
4)   About 8.9% of American households were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-sixth of these households (a total of about 1.4% of American households) had very low food security - meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food.
5)   About 10.9% of American households were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-third of these households (a total of about 4% of American households) had very low food security - meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food. On any given week, the incidence of persons having a day in which they were skipping meals or actually going hungry would approach 1%.
6)    About 13.9% of American households were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-half of these households (a total of about 6.8% of American households) had very low food security - meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food.
65) Assuming they work about 160 hours per month, how much does a person need to earn per hour in order to be able to consider a two-bedroom apartment at fair market rents (FMR) in Springfield (Sangamon and Menard County) affordable? (“affordable” meaning they pay under 30% of their income for housing).
1) In 2008 the Fair Market Rent (established by HUD) for the Springfield, IL MSA (Sangamon and Menard Counties) was $345 for a 1-bedroom apartment, and $410 for a 2-bedroom apartments).  If you earned $1367 per month the $410 price would be 30% of your gross income.  If you worked 160 paid-hours in a month, you would need to earn $8.55 per hour to earn that gross income.
2) In 2008 the Fair Market Rent (established by HUD) for the Springfield, IL MSA (Sangamon and Menard Counties) was $409 for a 1-bedroom apartment, and $463 for a 2-bedroom apartments).  If you earned $1544 per month the $463 price would be 30% of your gross income.  If you worked 160 paid-hours in a month, you would need to earn $9.65 per hour to earn that gross income.
3) In 2008 the Fair Market Rent (established by HUD) for the Springfield, IL MSA (Sangamon and Menard Counties) was $433 for a 1-bedroom apartment, and $551 for a 2-bedroom apartments).  If you earned $1837 per month the $551 price would be 30% of your gross income.  If you worked 160 paid-hours in a month, you would need to earn $11.48 per hour to earn that gross income.
4) In 2011 the Fair Market Rent (established by HUD) for the Springfield, IL MSA (Sangamon and Menard Counties) was $519 for a 1-bedroom apartment, and $671 for a 2-bedroom apartments).  If you earned $2240 per month the $671 price would be 30% of your gross income.  If you worked 160 paid-hours in a month, you would need to earn $14.00 per hour to earn that gross income. [correct]
5) In 2008 the Fair Market Rent (established by HUD) for the Springfield, IL MSA (Sangamon and Menard Counties) was $572 for a 1-bedroom apartment, and $711 for a 2-bedroom apartments).  If you earned $2370 per month the $711 price would be 30% of your gross income.  If you worked 160 paid-hours in a month, you would need to earn $14.82 per hour to earn that gross income.
6) In 2008 the Fair Market Rent (established by HUD) for the Springfield, IL MSA (Sangamon and Menard Counties) was $840 for a 1-bedroom apartment, and $944 for a 2-bedroom apartments).  If you earned $3147 per month the $944 price would be 30% of your gross income.  If you worked 160 paid-hours in a month, you would need to earn $19.67 per hour to earn that gross income.
66) Which of the following is an accurate statement about sundown towns?
1) There was a higher concentration of them in the South than in the Midwest.
2) Sundown towns were almost always informal, as cities hardly ever created ordinances to outlaw non-whites from staying overnight in towns. Enforcement was informal, exerted by social pressure and insistent demands from neighbors and citizens rather than legal authority (police).
3) Sundown towns existed right from the beginning, since pioneer settlement in the upper Midwest, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, etc., and Americans with African heritage were rarely allowed to move into towns in this area between their original settlement in the 1830s-1860s until the 1960s or 1970s.
4)  Sundown towns had already pretty much disappeared from the scene by 1968 when the Supreme Court struck down enforcement of restrictive covenants in Jones v Alfred H. Mayer Co.
5)   Sundown towns were almost always specifically set up against Americans with African heritage, and other racial or ethnic minorities (especially the Chinese, Jews, Mexican Americans, and American Indians) very rarely were excluded or driven out of sundown towns. 
6)  James Loewen believes Illinois probably has about 440 Sundown towns, and he lists over 300 on his Sundown Town website. [correct]
67) In Illinois, are prisoners who are convicted of felonies allowed to vote after they have served their terms in prison and have been released, or what conditions are imposed on their eligibility to vote when they are out of prison or jail?
1) In Illinois no one is disenfranchised aside from non-citizens and federal prisoners. Persons who have been sentenced and are serving time in state penitentiaries and county or city jails may always vote in elections. In fact, prisoners who are citizens are usually registered and allowed to vote while in jail or the state penitentiaries.
2) In Illinois if you’re a citizen and you’re not in jail or prison, then you may always register and vote in elections. It doesn’t matter if you are probation or parole. (Well, you can’t vote if you are out on furlough). [correct]
3) In Illinois you must not be under corrections supervision to vote. That means if you have completed a sentence (including probation or parole in addition to time in confinement), then you may vote, but not while you’re under corrections supervision.
4)   In Illinois, once you are out of confinement you may vote in local and state elections, but in order to vote in federal elections (for U.S. House members, U.S. Senators, or President and Vice President) you must have completed any sentence period, including time on probation or parole, and no longer be under corrections supervision.
5)     In Illinois, persons who have done time in prison or jail for any crime are not allowed to vote in any elections unless they have received a special pardon from the governor to re-enfranchise them.
6)   In Illinois, persons who have convicted of any felony crime are not allowed to vote in any elections unless they have received a special pardon from the governor to re-enfranchise them. The conviction is what triggers the loss of voting rights, not whether a person actually served time in a jail or prison.
68) A broad term used to describe programs, organizations, and systems (including groups such as HMOs) that are designed to 1) contain costs, and 2) maintain quality, described as, “a set of health care systems and technologies aimed at organizing and managing both the clinical and financial services to a given population of consumers.”
1) Managed Care  [correct]
2) Health Maintenance Care
3) Capitated Spending Care
4) Coordinated Systems Care
5) Health Insurance
6) Consolidated Systems of Care
69) Across the planet the various drug companies and pharmaceutical companies are estimated to spend slightly over $30 billion on research and development. Estimates of their spending on marketing vary between $40 billion and $60 billion. Yet, what is the total gross amount of money spent by American consumers on pharmaceuticals?
1) About $40 billion is a reasonable guess for American spending on pharmaceuticals, while total spending on health care was close to 900 billion ($0.9 trillion, in 2007).
2) About $50 billion is a reasonable guess for American spending on pharmaceuticals, while total spending on health care was close to 1,000 billion ($1.0 trillion, in 2007).
3) About $70 billion is a reasonable guess for American spending on pharmaceuticals, while total spending on health care was close to 1,300 billion ($1.3 trillion, in 2007).
4) About $90 billion is a reasonable guess for American spending on pharmaceuticals, while total spending on health care was close to 1,600 billion ($1.6 trillion, in 2007).
5) About $180 billion is a reasonable guess for American spending on pharmaceuticals, while total spending on health care was close to 2,300 billion ($2.3 trillion, in 2007). [correct]
6) About $360 billion is a reasonable guess for American spending on pharmaceuticals, while total spending on health care was close to 4,600 billion ($4.6 trillion, in 2007).
70) What is the most profitable sector of the U.S. Economy?
1) In the past couple decades the pharmaceutical industry has been among the most profitable industries, with profits frequently between 10% and 15%, while average industry profits are closer to 4%. [correct]
2) In the past couple decades the private health insurance industry has been among the most profitable industries, with profits frequently between 10% and 15%, while average industry profits are closer to 4%.
3) In the past couple decades the for-profit medical care industry (for-profit hospitals, for profit medical corporations, doctor practice partnerships, health management organizations, etc.) have been among the most profitable industries, with profits frequently between 10% and 15%, while average industry profits are closer to 4%.
4) In the past couple decades the low income housing development sector has had the highest profits of any industry in the United States, with profits frequently between 20% and 25%, while average industry profits are closer to 10%.
5) In the past couple decades the sub-prime lending and rent-to-own financial sectors have had the highest profits of any industries in the United States, with profits frequently between 20% and 25%, while average industry profits are closer to 10%.
6) In the past couple decades the for-profit mercenary and military-industrial weaponry industries have been leading in profits, with arms manufacturing yielding profits of close to 25%, while military support services and large-scale private security and military support firms earning profits over 20%.  Such profits greatly exceed average corporation profits of 5% to 10%.
71) The Medicare prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 was originally estimated by the Bush administration to cost about $4.3 billion, but after the bill was passed, the president’s budget observers re-estimated the cost as how many billion?
1) $24 billion.
2) $47 billion.
3) $67 billion.
4) $124 billion.
5) $217 billion.
6) $534 billion. [correct]
72) What did The 1939 Survivors Insurance Amendment do to Social Security?
1) This amendment extended benefits to women, who had previously been excluded from the Social Security pension system, which was originally created only as s program to benefit male workers.
2) It gave pensions to households rather than individuals, so that social security benefits were given to households according to the number of persons in the household, their ages, and the contributions of that household into the Social Security pension system as a whole. This created a system that diminished the connection between individual contributions and benefit levels, and replaced it with a system that gave greater importance to the actual needs of a household. It also provided more incentives for marriage.
3) It established annual cost of living adjustments for the pensions received by survivors of deceased social security beneficiaries. In this way the pensions for survivors were indexed to rises in the cost of living, and actual purchasing power of social security pensions remained constant after adjusting for inflation.
4) It extended the social security pension and insurance system to domestic workers and agricultural workers, who had been excluded from previous versions of Social Security, largely due to the racism of congressional representatives from the south.
5) It gave pensions to wives, elderly widows, and dependent survivors (e.g., children) of men who had been in the Social Security system. These pensions replaced lump-sum payments or else no benefits. Other 1939 changes to social security established the trust fund to manage surplus revenues, increased funding for Aid to Dependent Children, and raised the age of children who could receive survivor’s pensions up to 18. So, the Amendment generally extended and strengthened support to dependents. [correct]
6) It established a new formula for giving benefits to the survivors (windows or dependents) of anyone who died while receiving Social Security benefits. Previously, upon the death of person who had made contributions into the Social Security system, benefits to survivors were set at 50% of what the contributor had been drawing or would have drawn.  The new formula provided spouses and dependents with 100% of the benefit levels until children turned 16 or surviving spouses turned 64, at which time benefits for children were eliminated and benefits for spouses were reduced to 75%.
73) What is the amount of money invested by pharmaceutical companies in researching and developing new drugs, and what is the amount of money spent by the pharmaceutical industry on marketing their drugs?
1) Each year the private, for-profit pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $7 billion on research and development, and $8.5 billion on marketing.
2) Each year the private, for-profit pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $8.5 billion on research and development, and $7 billion on marketing.
3) Each year the private, for-profit pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $27 billion on research and development, and $11.5 billion on marketing.
4) Each year the private, for-profit pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $11.5 billion on research and development, and $27 billion on marketing.
5) Each year the private, for-profit pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $31.5 billion on research and development, and $57 billion on marketing.
6)Each year the private, for-profit pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $57 billion on research and development, and $31.5 billion on marketing.
74) About what is the size of the American labor force? (How many millions of persons living in America are working or seeking work?)
1) In 2008, there were about 175 million Americans in the civilian non-institutionalized labor force (about 170 million had jobs and 5 million were unemployed). About 120 million persons were non-institutionalized civilians who were over 16, but not in the labor force (retired persons and stay-at-home parents and people living off their wealth without working and people who had given up seeking jobs, and people who were too disabled to work but not disabled enough to live in a institutionalized setting, etc.)  So, about 59% of the population over 16 years old was in the workforce. In 2011 the main difference was that the number of unemployed was higher (about 10.5 million) and the percentage of the population in the workforce was higher (about 62%).
2) In 2008, there were about 154 million Americans in the civilian non-institutionalized labor force (about 145 million had jobs and 9 million were unemployed). About 80 million persons were non-institutionalized civilians who were over 16, but not in the labor force (retired persons and stay-at-home parents and people living off their wealth without working and people who had given up seeking jobs, and people who were too disabled to work but not disabled enough to live in a institutionalized setting, etc.)  So, about 66% of the population over 16 years old was in the workforce.  In 2011 the main difference was that the number of unemployed was higher (about 13.5 million) and the percentage of the population in the workforce was lower (about 64%). [correct]
3) In 2008, there were about 98 million Americans in the civilian non-institutionalized labor force (about 93 million had jobs and 5 million were unemployed). About 70 million persons were non-institutionalized civilians who were over 16, but not in the labor force (retired persons and stay-at-home parents and people living off their wealth without working and people who had given up seeking jobs, and people who were too disabled to work but not disabled enough to live in a institutionalized setting, etc.)  So, about 58% of the population over 16 years old was in the workforce. In 2011 the main difference was that the size of the labor force had increased (about to about 110.5 million) and the percentage of the population in the workforce was lower (about 52%).
4) In 2008, there were about 112 million Americans in the civilian non-institutionalized labor force (about 98 million had jobs and 14 million were unemployed). About 125 million persons were non-institutionalized civilians who were over 16, but not in the labor force (retired persons and stay-at-home parents and people living off their wealth without working and people who had given up seeking jobs, and people who were too disabled to work but not disabled enough to live in a institutionalized setting, etc.)  So, about 48% of the population over 16 years old was in the workforce. In 2011 the main difference was that the size of the labor force had increased (about to about 125 million) and the percentage of the population in the workforce was higher (about 60%).
5) In 2008, there were about 205 million Americans in the civilian non-institutionalized labor force (about 184 million had jobs and 21 million were unemployed). About 125 million persons were non-institutionalized civilians who were over 16, but not in the labor force (retired persons and stay-at-home parents and people living off their wealth without working and people who had given up seeking jobs, and people who were too disabled to work but not disabled enough to live in a institutionalized setting, etc.)  So, about 62% of the population over 16 years old was in the workforce. In 2011 the main difference was that the number of unemployed was lower (about 10.5 million) and the size of the labor force was lower (about 168 million).
6) In 2008, there were about 80 million Americans in the civilian non-institutionalized labor force (about 66 million had jobs and 14 million were unemployed). About 74 million persons were non-institutionalized civilians who were over 16, but not in the labor force (retired persons and stay-at-home parents and people living off their wealth without working and people who had given up seeking jobs, and people who were too disabled to work but not disabled enough to live in a institutionalized setting, etc.)  So, about 52% of the population over 16 years old was in the workforce. In 2011 the main difference was that unemployed was much lower (about 8.5 million) and the size of the labor force was much higher (about 112 million).
75) The Charity Organization Society movement began in England in 1869 and the USA in 1877, where S. Humphries Gurteen of Buffalo brought the movement after observing its work in London. The COS built upon the work of Thomas Chalmers of Scotland and Joseph Tuckerman of Boston, who began work respectively in 1814 and 1819. What did Gurteen, Chalmers, and Tuckerman have in common in terms of their occupations?
1) All three were college professors in the humanities.
2) All three were wealthy businessmen and investors.
3) All three were members of the clergy.  [correct]
4) All three were government officials who worked in city government.
5) All three were lawyers.
6) All three had worked as police or sheriffs.
76) Approximately what percentage of Americans say that religion is very important in their own lives, at least according to the Gallup Poll News Service’s survey from 2006?
1) 16% say it is very important, and 48% say it is fairly important.
2) 24% say it is very important, and 34% say it is fairly important.
3) 36% say it is very important, and 38% say it is fairly important.
4) 44% say it is very important, and 34% say it is fairly important.
5) 56% say it is very important, and 28% say it is fairly important. [correct]
6) 74% say it is very important, and 14% say it is fairly important.
77) Describe crime rate trends (total for youth and adults, generalized over both personal and property crimes) over the past 30 years in the United States. (Which of the following short essay answers is a more accurate description of crime trends?)
1) The early to mid-1990s were a time of very high crime rates for youth and adults. Compared to those years, crime rates now are significantly lower in almost every category. However, crime rates have fluctuated in the past few years, and some type of crime have increased (slightly) in recent years (but rates remain pretty far below where they were 15 years ago). And yet, despite the overall decrease in crime, the number of persons incarcerated has doubled between 1990 and now, and numbers of persons in probation and prison have increased steadily between 1990 and 2008, and have only in the past couple years started to slightly decline. [correct]
2)   Crime rates have increased across most categories of crime. Juvenile crime is as bad now as it has ever been, and violent crime rates have been generally climbing for the past 40 years. In the late 1990s crime rates stopped increasing for a few years during the economic boom, but the steady increase in crime has continued in the past few years. One reason may be that although the population has increased significantly in the past twenty years, the numbers of criminals who actually spend time incarcerated has decreased.
3)   Violent crime was relatively low in the United States until the 1960s, and from that time, the culture of drugs and gangs has contributed to rapidly increasing rates of violent crimes, rapes, and robberies. Youth violence, in particular, reached alarming rates in the years leading up to the 2001 attack on the United States. Since the War on Terror began in 2001, violent crime rates have dropped for five years in a row, but property crimes continue to increase at an alarming rate. The numbers of people who are serving time in prisons or under supervision while on parole has been fairly constant over the past two decades.
4)   Crime rates have fluctuated dramatically over the past thirty years. Peak years of high crime rates were experienced during recessions in the early 1980s, the early 1990s, and the first years of the new century. Very low crime rates were experienced during years of high economic growth in the late 1980s, the mid-1990s, and currently. Likewise, rates of persons being caught up in the justice system and serving time on parole or in prison have swung up and down, but in general the government is turning away from incarceration and fewer people now stay in jails or prisons. Instead, the government is putting more people out on parole or letting criminals get off with mere probation.
5)   Crime rates have been fairly steady over the past thirty years.  Incarceration rates have also head fairly steady.  There have been no remarkable increases or decreases in crime, nor have there been any major changes in the numbers of persons on probation or incarcerated.
6)   Crime rates have been slowly declining over the past forty years, and so have the numbers of Americans incarcerated or on probation.  Our society is becoming less violent, and there are fewer property crimes, and this has been a long-term trend that has held fairly constant over the recent decades.
78) Which of the following is most accurately describing Medicare?
1) This is the program that people 65 years old or older may use for health insurance. It’s also available to some people with certain disabilities or people with permanent kidney failure. Currently there are over 45 million (perhaps soon more than 50 million) Americans receiving medical coverage through this program. The total expenditures for this program are likely to be about $489 billion in the coming fiscal year. [correct]
2)   This is the program that people 60 years old or older may use for health insurance. It’s also available to some people with certain disabilities or people with permanent kidney failure. Currently there are over 65 million (perhaps soon more than 70 million) Americans receiving medical coverage through this program. The total expenditures for this program are likely to be slightly over $200 billion in the coming fiscal year.
3)   This is the program that people 70 years old or older may use for health insurance. It’s also available to some people with certain disabilities or people with permanent kidney failure. Currently there are over 35 million (perhaps soon more than 40 million) Americans receiving medical coverage through this program. The total expenditures for this program are likely to be slightly over $370 billion in the coming fiscal year.
4)   This is the program that provides health insurance to some poor people. It is funded by the federal and state governments, and state governments administer it, so qualifications vary by state. Pregnant women and children under age six whose family income is under 133% of the federal poverty level must qualify for this program (if they are citizens or lawful residents). Currently there are over 53 million Americans (perhaps soon over 55 million) with health insurance through this program. The federal government spends slightly over $200 billion each year on this program. Not all poor people qualify for this program; in fact, more than half of all non-elderly persons in poverty in the United States do not qualify for health coverage through this program.
5)   This is the program that provides health insurance to some poor people. It is funded by the federal and state governments, and state governments administer it, so qualifications vary by state. Pregnant women and children under age six whose family income is under 150% of the federal poverty level must qualify for this program (if they are citizens or lawful residents). Currently there are approximately 43 million Americans (perhaps soon over 45 million) with health insurance through this program. The federal government spends slightly over $160 billion each year on this program. Nearly all poor people qualify for this program; in fact, more than 80% of all non-elderly persons in poverty in the United States receive health coverage through this program.
6)   This is the program that provides health insurance to some poor people. It is funded by the federal and state governments, and state governments administer it, so qualifications vary by state. Pregnant women and children under age six whose family income is under 100% of the federal poverty level must qualify for this program (if they are citizens or lawful residents). Currently there are approximately 33 million Americans (perhaps soon over 35 million) with health insurance through this program. The federal government spends slightly over $140 billion each year on this program. All persons whose income falls below the federal poverty level are automatically covered by this program.

79)Which of the following short essays is the best at explaining three useful ways of conceptualizing poverty and the experience of persons who live in poverty?
1) One common type of poverty is dependency poverty, an experience in which persons who might otherwise seek jobs or join the labor force choose to live off of the generous welfare benefits they receive such as EITC, SNAP, TANF, SSI, unemployment insurance, public housing or subsidized rental vouchers, and Medicaid. This is an experience of poverty in which a person who has some informal resources finds that between the informal support or informal economic activity they use to supplement their welfare income, they can live lives of leisure with actual consumption above poverty (the combination of benefits and informal support and informal cash income-generating activities keep them right at a level of consumption where they are comfortable, and can sustain their lifestyle with a minimum work effort. Then there is intergenerational poverty, linked to race and genetic predispositions, in which generation after generation of a family remains in poverty, frequently each generation begins having children around ages 15-18, and parenting skills are poor.  The families remain bemired in a culture of poverty and dependency, and transmit their low skills, fatalism, lack of ambition, and destructive social behaviors to each new generation. A third type of poverty is voluntary poverty. This can be a noble thing, as when a member of a religious community takes vows of poverty or a graduate student endures years of hardship to earn an advanced degree, but it can also be a simple lifestyle choice, as when certain people decide to disengage from mainstream materialism and live as subsistence farmers or hustle from friends, or live the life of a vagabond, depending upon the support of friends, family, and new acquaintances.
2)   Cultural poverty is a type of poverty in which people have adopted a set of values and behaviors to form a new sub-class and a counter-culture that rejects mainstream values. Prevalent in the slums of large third world cities, cultural poverty involves behaviors and attitudes such as fatalism, hostility toward authority, highly sexualized relationships, bravado, a lack of interest in education, and pride in one’s difference from elites or mainstream persons. Another type of poverty is sometimes called “honest poverty” or working-class poverty, and involves a situation in which a household is headed by young people who are starting their careers, or are just low-skilled, and forced to work in occupations with low pay. This is the situation of the working poor, who may work full-time, but still have difficulty making ends meet because their wages are low or they work without benefits. A third type of poverty is relative poverty, a type of poverty that is experienced mentally more than physically, in which a person feels that they are poor because they become aware of how others have more things or an easier life, and so by comparison, they feel themselves deprived. Much poverty in America is this sort of relative poverty, because most poor Americans actually have a very comfortable lifestyle and many possessions or living comforts that even the middle classes cannot afford in other societies.
3)   The three types of poverty are absolute poverty, indexed poverty, and threshold poverty.  Absolute poverty is the type of poverty where you do not have enough to meet your basic survival needs, and you suffer physical harm because you become homeless or you are malnourished.  Indexed poverty is the situation where some criteria has been set and everyone who falls below a certain level is considered poor, but the level fluctuates because it is fixed as a ratio to some other figure. For example, in Europe it is common to define poverty as living with less than half of the median household income, but as the median household income is always changing, the poverty rates may change, and even if the median household income is quite affluent, so that having half of it would make someone quite comfortable, by definition those who live on half the median are considered poor.  Threshold poverty involves some objective standard other than absolute poverty.  For example, if poverty is set as living on less than $2.00 per day per person in the household, that can be threshold poverty.  In the United States we use an official poverty threshold based on the cost of feeding a family, so that is also a form of threshold poverty.
4)   Poverty is usually understood in three dimensions.  There is economic poverty, which relates to loss of economic power and an inability to purchase either necessary or desired goods and services.  Then there is human poverty, or poverty of spirit, and this relates to people who have very few skills, or persons who are ignorant, or persons who have very little to offer any employer.  Such persons may be ignored by others or given the worst jobs because they are not worthy of anything better. People who have personality disorders and are very difficult to get along with often are described as having this sort of human poverty, in which they don’t have many redeeming qualities as human beings. Then there is social poverty, a sort of poverty experienced when people are socially isolated and have very little social support.  This is a poverty in which people are not loved, or do not feel loved, and so they are lonely, and have no one to share their good times with.  Such persons are said to be “poor in friends,” and this poverty has a stronger influence on happiness than economic poverty.
5)   Most people experience some transitional poverty in their lives.  This is a temporary and relatively short spell of poverty following a life change such as leaving school, a marital or romantic dissolution, and most often, the loss of a job. This can be a poverty someone from the middle class experiences early in their adult life or during a life transition, or a person from a poor background might experience this early in their life, but then rise permanently out of poverty.  Then there is cycling poverty, where people fall into poverty and rise out of poverty fairly often, but don’t experience many long period out of poverty (or in poverty).  This occurs for seasonal workers or persons with low skills who are quickly laid off by employers, and may also be a situation for persons working in declining industries, or competent persons who have difficulty holding a job. Then there is chronic poverty, experienced most often by persons who live with chronic physical or mental health problems, persons with disabilities, and persons with serious deficits in their social or life skills, and persons with cognitive deficits or intellectual disabilities. [correct]
6)   The three types of poverty are deserved poverty, undeserving poverty, and structural poverty.  Deserved poverty is the situation when a person is poor for some good reason.  For example, a person who is fired for poor job performance may experience poverty, and this is due to their incompetence or their bad behavior as a worker. Then, there is undeserved poverty.  This is when someone becomes poor because of circumstances beyond their control, such as an illness or injury. Structural poverty is experienced when a person is part of a community where there is little economic growth, and there is not much wealth to spread around.  This is a type of poverty based on lack of local resources, and is experienced as a community by many individuals. Deserved and undeserved poverty are more closely linked to an individual’s behavior or bad fortune, while structural poverty is caused by forces beyond a person’s control.
80) In the movie Winter’s Bone, what is the main problem with how the film portrayed the social welfare policies and programs that would have been significant in a real case such as this?
1)   The Sheriff failed to call the child protection hotline when he had reason to suspect that the young heroine has been physically abused by her family.
2)   The Sheriff was aware that a foreclosure would force into homelessness a household in which a 17-year-old minor was acting as the head-of-household with two younger children and also acting as the primary caregiver to an adult with a serious disability or mental illness. Despite this knowledge, he did not refer the young heroine to any welfare service, nor did he notify any social worker from a child welfare agency, mental health center, county welfare office, or any other supportive agency about the situation. The sheriff was unbelievably incompetent in this regard. [correct]
3)   The teachers at the school where the heroine and her younger siblings attended classes did not notice the fact that the heroine was coming to school while under the influence of methamphetamines. Her behavior while intoxicated by the drug should have been noticed and should have triggered an intervention by school personnel.
4)   When the heroine was brought to the family court, the judge did not appoint a Guardian Ad Litem, nor did he ask the social worker to justify why the younger children should be removed from the household. In the real world, courts can only remove children if a social worker or other expert has investigated the case and given a report. Judges cannot arbitrarily terminate custody or remove children from households simply because one parent has failed to appear for a trial date.
5)   The characters in this film are portrayed as having to live entirely off the land, hunting their food, and going hungry when they cannot catch animals or grow food in their gardens.  There was no sign that anyone was receiving any food support such as SNAP benefits or free or reduced lunches at school. In addition to this, when the heroine’s mother applies to get SSI for herself because of her chronic depression, the movie shows the welfare worker telling her that she has run out of her benefits and exceeded her lifetime cap, but there is no lifetime cap for SSI benefits, as the lifetime limit only exists for TANF benefits.
6)   The social workers in the film are portrayed as being stupid, incompetent, and highly judgmental. In the real world, social workers are wise, intelligent, highly efficient and competent, and they are able to suspend judgment and put people at ease instead of blaming and accusing them.
81) According to the NASW code of ethics, what are the ethical responsibilities of social workers related to policy and programs?
1)   Social workers must advocate for human services and supports for persons who use human services or welfare, and they must be vigilant to prevent governments from cutting too much from human services in order to protect funding for health, education, or public works, because those types of spending do not target the most vulnerable and oppressed groups in society. Social workers are also enjoined to pursue an agenda that includes wealth redistribution, abortion rights, affirmative action, client autonomy, marijuana legalization, and the de-stigmatization or rehabilitation of sex workers.
2)   Three aspects of the Code of Ethics are most closely related to this course.  First, as part of the fifth value statement, we are told that social workers must follow a liberal or radical perspective and critique the powers that benefit from society. Secondly, in the third section, describing ethical responsibilities to the planet, we are told that social workers must advocate for policies to provide every human with a basic living standard in which their human needs are met. Thirdly, in the ninth section, describing social responsibility, we are told that social workers must work for policies that lead to redistribution of resources so that the poor will receive more benefits from the wealthy, and the most affluent members of society will pay their fair share toward support of the poor.
3)   Two aspects of the Code of Ethics are most closely related to this course.  First, in the six value statements mentioned as the ethical principles guiding us in our professional work, we are told that social workers challenge social injustice.  Secondly, in the sixth session, describing social workers’ ethical responsibilities to the broader society, we are told that social workers should promote the general welfare of society, facilitate informed participation by the public in shaping social policies, engage in political action that seeks to ensure that all people have equal access to resources, act to expand choice and opportunity, promote conditions that encourage respect for diversity, and act to prevent and eliminate domination of, exploitation of, and discrimination against people. [correct]
4)   Social workers need to remain competent in their skills, and macro practice skills involve influencing policy, so it is necessary for social workers to know how policies are made, and what the policies are. This is part of maintaining their competence in macro practice skills.  Social workers are also required to participate in political campaigns and political movements, supporting candidates who will work for increased funding to human services or other policies that will provide funding and jobs to social workers.  In the fourth section on ethical responsibility, social workers are called to work for emancipation from old traditions and constraints on human behavior, to maximize autonomy and self-determination of all people, and remove controls and powers that are used to oppress people and limit their horizons.
5)   Social workers are directly called to participate in the struggle between labor and capital, and are told that labor is more important than capable.  Social workers have a value and an ethical commitment to support the actions of the workers and the working classes in their inherent struggle against the bosses and owners who exploit them to wring profits and wealth from the sweat of the workers.
6)   Social workers have an ethical responsibility to maintain social control, and help society regiment unruly elements.  In order to help society function smoothly, social workers must support policies that prevent unrest and revolution. Social workers must pay attention to people who do not fit well into the social expectations and demands of mainstream society, and we must help such persons adjust and accommodate the wishes of the majority. This is described in section five, on social worker responsibilities to society, where we are told that social workers must, “serve the government and instruments of social control and order in society, to prevent anarchy, disorder, chaos, and confusion.”
82) Christine Radogno, the only social worker in the Illinois General Assembly, holds what position?
1)   House minority whip         2)  House majority whip         3) House majority leader
4)   House minority leader        5)  Senate majority leader       6) Senate minority leader [correct]

83) What are some types of mental illness that create the greatest global disease burden?
1)   Anxiety disorders and dissociative disorders.      2) Depression and schizophrenia [correct]
3)   Personality disorders and obsessive disorders      4) Impulse control and behavioral disorders
5)   Conduct and autistic disorders                           6) Bipolar and compulsive disorders
84) What is an accurate description of the graying of America?
1)   The population aged 65 and over is expected to grow 107% (more than double) between 2008 and 2040. In 2009 the elderly were 12.5% of the population, but by 2040 those 65 and older will be almost 20% of the population. [correct]
2)   The population aged 65 and over is expected to grow 206% (more than triple) between 2008 and 2040. In 2009 the elderly were 10.1% of the population, but by 2040 those 65 and older will be almost 26% of the population.
3)   As the median age increases from 32 (in 2000) up to 44 (projected for 2040), the elderly will gain greater dominance in government and society.  As a result, resources will shift to support the elderly, health care will grow as a portion of the economy, and wages will decline for younger people as most of the nation’s wealth is given to the elderly through pensions and Social Security benefits.
4)   As the median age increases from 28 (in 2000) up to 34 (projected for 2040), the elderly will overwhelm the Medicare and Social Security systems. As a result, society will change the way it funds retirement and medical care, and the generations born after 1970 will receive much smaller benefits and pay much higher taxes.
5)   As the birth rates and fertility rates decline, the population of the United States will begin to shrink, and by 2020 there will be two persons over the age of 64 for every person under the age of 24. The dependency ratios will increase, so that for every person aged 65 or older there will only be 2 working-aged persons, whereas in 2010 there were 8 working-aged persons for every person aged 65 or older.
6)   As the birth rates and fertility rates decline, the population of the United States will begin to shrink, and by 2020 there will be two persons over the age of 64 for every person under the age of 18. The dependency ratios will increase, so that for every person aged 65 or older there will only be 3 working-aged persons, whereas in 2010 there were 10 working-aged persons for every person aged 65 or older.
85) Who helped as founder of Hull House and a famous spokesperson for social work and the settlement house movement (and won the Noble Peace Prize in 1931)?
1)   Jane Addams [correct]
2)   Frances Perkins
3)   Bertha Capen Reynolds
4)   Mary Richmond
5)   Virginia Satir
6)   Ida B. Wells
86) Who was Dorothea Dix?
1)   She was a volunteer at Toynbee House in London, who later came to America and became one of the founders of Chicago Commons, and active leader in the Settlement House movement in North America.
2)   She was a leading psychiatric nurse who advocated for patient rights and respectful treatment of persons with mental disorders.  She also advocated for workers’ rights and fought for unions in the labor unrest of the early 20th century. She was also a pioneer of early social work education.
3)   She was a tireless crusader to reform conditions in prisons, jails, and mental hospitals.  She demanded that society treat everyone with basic respect for human dignity, who between 1841-1881 traveled around America and Europe to advocate for better mental institutions and correctional facilities. [correct]
4)   She served in the cabinet of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was first Secretary of Labor. Her work with the New Deal helped establish programs such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (a forerunner of today’s Temporary Assistance to Needy Families), and she worked to have Social Security benefits given to windows and orphans who survived after a worker died.
5)   She was an organizer of charities for the poor and for children in the Midwest after the War against the Rebellion of the Southern Slaveholders. She helped establish many children’s homes, and reformed the practices in such institutions so that children were loved and cared for, thus drastically reducing mortality rates within the orphanages. She was also an early advocate for a casework approach in which friendly visitors would keep notes on poor households they visited and attempt to connect poor families to community resources.
6)   She was an early leader in the women’s sports movement, who was able to compete against men in track, tennis, and golf, and set many world records for women’s athletics in the 1920s and 1930s. A graduate of the University of Illinois in Urbana, she became a spokesperson for community interventions and clubs for youth in disadvantaged communities.  She organized voluntary sports leagues and community centers in small towns and cities across the United States, and promoted healthy leisure activities with adult supervision for young people whose parents were unable to provide much recreational support or guidance.
87) Which of these two social workers served in the cabinet for FDR and were instrumental in the design and implementation of the New Deal in the 1930s and 1940s?
1)   Dorothea Dix and Saul Alinksy.
2)   Dorothea Dix and Harry Hopkins
3)   Dorothea Dix and Bertha Capen Reynolds
4)   Frances Perkins and Bertha Capen Reynolds
5)   Frances Perkins and Saul Alinksy
6)   Frances Perkins and Harry Hopkins [correct]
88) Where and when was Hull House Founded?
1)   Founded in 1871 in Chicago’s North Shore
2)   Founded in 1889 in Chicago’s Near West Side  [correct]
3)   Founded in 1898 in Baltimore’s East Bay
4)   Founded in 1848 in Baltimore’s South Side
5)   Founded in 1873 in London’s East End
6)   Founded in 1861 in London’s Belgravia
89) When the Census Bureau last did a major study of disability (in 2005), what rates did they find?
1)   Rate in whole population is 18.7% with a disability, with 12.0% having a severe disability. For persons 65 and older, 51.8% had a disability. For those aged 21 to 64 years of age with a disability, 45.6% were employed. [correct]
2)   Rate in whole population is 14.7% with a disability, with 8.0% having a severe disability. For persons 65 and older, 45.8% had a disability. For those aged 21 to 64 years of age with a disability, 55.6% were employed.
3)   Rate in whole population is 12.2% with a disability, with 6.6% having a severe disability. For persons 65 and older, 42.1% had a disability. For those aged 21 to 64 years of age with a disability, 31.6% were employed.
4)   Rate in whole population is 11.0% with a disability, with 5.2% having a severe disability. For persons 65 and older, 40.0% had a disability. For those aged 21 to 64 years of age with a disability, 35.6% were employed.
5)   Rate in whole population is 9.0% with a disability, with 4.2% having a severe disability. For persons 65 and older, 32.1% had a disability. For those aged 21 to 64 years of age with a disability, 25.4% were employed.
5)   Rate in whole population is 7.0% with a disability, with 3.2% having a severe disability. For persons 65 and older, 25.1% had a disability. For those aged 21 to 64 years of age with a disability, 20.4% were employed.
90) YLL?
1)   Yale Liberal Learning. (A experiment in pedagogy used in New Haven, CT in a successful intervention to reduce youth violence through intensive training in philosophy, literature, art, and history with disadvantaged adolescents)
2)   Youth Labor League. (A union of children who worked in mines and factories, they were instrumental in organizing strikes and agitating for better working conditions between the 1880s and the 1920s)
3)   Youth Leader Library.  (a network of libraries set up for freemen in the South after emancipation and revived as part of a self-help movement among African-Americans who had migrated north for jobs in the early 20th century)
4)   Young Laborers’ Livelihoods.  (occupations in which the Fair Labor Act of 1937 allowed children to work, exempted from some anti-child labor restrictions)
5)   Years of Life Lost.  (a measure of disease burden) [correct]
6)   Years of Leisure Living.  (a measure of high quality life in old age)
91) In surveys, most Americans agree they would like to see government spending reduced. However, when specific government expenditures and programs are described, most Americans say they would not cut those specific programs.  What is the one type of spending that a (very slight) majority of Americans agree they would like to see cut?
1)   Public support for health care (e.g., Medicaid, Medicare, Veteran’s Administration, etc.)
2)   Defense spending
3)   Social Security and public retirement benefits.
4)   International Aid [correct]
5)   Education spending
6)   Financial support for single parents with young children who have low incomes (e.g., TANF, EITC).
92) In 2010, what was the average spending on health per capita in the United States (total spending on health and health-related parts of the economy divided by total population)?
1)   About $1,800                       2)   About $2,300                 3)   About $3,800
4)   About $5,300                       5)   About $6,300                 6)   About $7,800  [correct]
93) What, approximately, is the total personal income of the United States (It’s a bit less than the Gross Domestic Product, because not all economic activity ends up as income).
1)   About $2,500 billion                 2) About $4,300 billion    3)   About $7,800 billion
4)   About $12,500 billion [correct]   5) About $14,300 billion  6)   About $17,800 billion
94) What month is Social Work Month?
1) March  [correct]                    2)   April                            3)   July
4)     August                              5)   November                     6)   December
95) In what year was the Chinese Exclusion Act passed, and in what year was it repealed?
1)   The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1858.  It was repealed in 1923.
2)   The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882.  It was repealed in 1943. [correct]
3)   The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1895.  It was repealed in 1923.
4)   The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1912.  It was repealed in 1943.
5)   The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1924.  It was repealed in 1965.
6)   The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1931.  It was repealed in 1965.
96) What is the theory, used in studies of criminal behavior, the behavior of persons with mental illness, and the study of how people know how to behave when they are sick, or are members of deviant sub-cultures? This particular theory I want you to name emphasizes the power of using a name for a person’s problem, and giving them this term or name to describe who they are and what their problem is.  The theory suggests that people want to conform to expectations and ideas people have about them, and so when we attach a term to someone and describe them as being a certain way, they are more likely to behave as they think someone ought to behave when that term is used to describe them.  In other words, the words we assign to a person and a person’s problem will possibly have an influence on how they decide to behave.  Thus, we must be careful of using certain negative terms or names for people, as they may act in accord with the implications of those names, or we may unconsciously encourage behavior that conforms to the ideas associated with the name or term, even if we have hidden the descriptive word from a person.
1)   Social Role Expectation theory.
2)   Labeling theory. [correct]
3)   Terminological Conformity theory.
4)   Power of Naming theory.
5)   Language Construct theory.
6)   Linguistic Identity theory
97) According to the IRS, in 2005, how much did the very wealthy pay in their federal income taxes?
1)   Filers earning between $1 million and $10 million paid an average of 18% to 19% of their income in federal income taxes, while those making over $10 million paid 17.2%, on average.
2)   Filers earning between $1 million and $10 million paid an average of 23% to 24% of their income in federal income taxes, while those making over $10 million paid 22.2%, on average. [correct]
3)   Filers earning between $1 million and $10 million paid an average of 30% to 31% of their income in federal income taxes, while those making over $10 million paid 29.2%, on average.
4)   Filers earning between $1 million and $10 million paid an average of 35% to 36% of their income in federal income taxes, while those making over $10 million paid 38.2%, on average.
5)   Filers earning between $1 million and $10 million paid an average of 40% to 41% of their income in federal income taxes, while those making over $10 million paid 42.2%, on average.
6)   Filers earning between $1 million and $10 million paid an average of 43% to 44% of their income in federal income taxes, while those making over $10 million paid 45.2%, on average.
98) This semester saw a landmark and historic bill signed by the governor, related to the justice system; what did this law do?
1)   This was a three-strikes-and-you’re-out law, so that anyone convicted of a third felony in their lifetime must serve at least 20 years with no chance of parole until they have served 80% of their sentence.
2)   This was a law that put an end to capital punishment in Illinois (aside from Federal crimes and Federal prosecutions, over which the state has no control). [correct]
3)   This was a law against corrupt police and prosecutors, so that persons who are wrongfully convicted due to prosecutors or police hiding evidence, failing to share evidence, or planting false evidence may sue the responsible parties and receive awards for damages.
4)   This was an anti-torture law against abuses in police interrogations. Now all police interrogations must be recorded in video and audio, and entire records of the whole interviews or interrogations must be made available to defense lawyers or others. The law makes supervising officers criminally liable for any abuses committed under their direction, so if a detective tortures a suspect, that detective’s supervisor is also guilty of a felony.
5)   This was a law to legalize the recreational use of marijuana and several other controlled substances (mostly hallucinogens with less addictive potential). Illinois is joining other states in opting out of the War on Drugs.
6)   This was a new tough-on-crime law that will allow Illinois prosecutors to charge children as young as ten as adults, and send them to adult prisons if they are convicted of serious adult crimes such as larceny, forgery, assault, or even more serious crimes.
99) Which ranking is the correct ordered list showing four of the worst health problems and diseases in a global perspective with the disease or health problem causing the most years of life lost at top?
1)         [correct]
Cardiovascular Diseases
Respiratory infections (incl. flu and pneumonia)
Unintentional injuries such as road accidents
HIV/AIDS

2)          
Respiratory infections (incl. flu and pneumonia)
Cancers of lung, trachea, and bronchus
HIV/AIDS
Cardiovascular Diseases

3)        
Unintentional injuries such as road accidents
Suicides and self-inflicted injuries
Malaria
Cardiovascular Diseases

4)          
Malaria
Respiratory infections (incl. flu and pneumonia)
Cancers of lung, trachea, and bronchus
Unintentional injuries such as road accidents

5)        
HIV/AIDS
Malaria
Cardiovascular Diseases
Respiratory infections (incl. flu and pneumonia)

6)          
Unintentional injuries such as road accidents
Malaria
Suicides and self-inflicted injuries
Cardiovascular Diseases

100) Is this statement wrong, and if so, why?
In 2007, total national spending on health care exceeded $2,300 billion.  Spending on medical research was probably a bit less than $80 billion ($38 billion from private for-profit companies, $36 billion from public sources, and probably a few billion more on research from private non-profits.
1)   Total spending on health care was much lower, about$1.5 trillion. Also, government spending on research was higher, probably over $45 billion.
2)   Total health care spending was much higher, about $2.8 trillion. Also, private industry invests about $2 for every $1 invested by the government, so with public research at $36 billion, private for-profit investment in medicine and health care research probably exceeded $70 billion. Total research investment is in excess of $140 billion.
3)   The research contributions by private non-profit funds and trusts and non-profit entities is much higher, probably close to $30 billion, which means total research investment is over $100 billion. Total spending on health care hasn’t yet reached $2 trillion, but it’s nearly there, around $1.9 trillion.
4)   Total spending on health care was higher, around $3 trillion.  Total research investiment was about $200 billion, distributed approximately evenly between public research and private research ($100 billion from public sources for research, and about $60 billion from private for-profits, with about $40 billion from the private non-profits and charitable funds.
5)   Total spending on health care is only about five times greater than total spending on research. In 2007, the total health care spending was about $1.5 trillion, and total research spending was about $300 billion.  Private firms invested $200 billion in research.  The federal government invested about $40 billion in research, and private non-profit institutions put about another $60 billion into research.
6)   There is nothing wrong with the first statement.  Every figure is reasonable. [correct]
101) What event is often credited with quickly inspiring the passage of 11 new laws dealing with child abuse, and started new innovations in federal and state policy that within six years included the passage of Title XX of the Social Security Act, part of which included a mandate that all states provide protective services and gave large amounts of federal funding to support child protective services?
1)   The report written by John Finley and Charles Birtwell after the first White House Conference on Children in which they described problems with foster homes and children’s homes, and in particular described the appalling mortality rates among children in institutional care.
2)   The “Children’s crusade” led by Mother Jones bringing children from Kensington, Pennsylvania to Oyster Bay, New York (the home of President Roosevelt) to complain about the lack of laws to protect children from abuse or labor exploitation.
3)   The kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh’s baby and the widespread trend of kidnapping children for ransom during the Great Depression.

4)   The publication of “The Battered Child Syndrome” by C. Henry Kempe in the Journal of the American Medical Association in the early 1960s. [correct]

5)   The widely publicized case of Mary Ellen Wilson, an eight-year-old girl who was being abused and neglected by her step-parents.

6)   A study commissioned by the Children’s Aid Society that showed that 30,000 of the nearly one million residents of New York City (3%) were homeless children abandoned or orphaned by their parents and earning their living by prostituting themselves or working in dangerous jobs for very low pay.



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